Freedom on the Net
Internet Freedom Scores
June 1, 2016 – May 31, 2017
- Cuba’s Wi-Fi hotspots continued to grow as prices dropped from CUC 2 to 1.50 per hour. In December 2016, the government launched a pilot home internet access program in Old Havana, and in early 2017, Santiago de Cuba tested a first pilot 3G network (see Availability and Ease of Access).
- The government has continued to control the digital landscape by blocking critical sites. Tests also found that the state-owned cellphone provider Cubacel had been systematically filtering domestic SMS containing keywords such as “democracy,” “dictatorship,” and “human rights” (see Blocking and Filtering).
- Independent journalists working with non-state digital media outlets were periodically detained and prevented from covering sensitive stories. Others were banned from state-controlled internet access points, or fired from their posts in efforts to reign in those who used personal blogs or who simultaneously worked for independent media (see Prosecutions and Detentions for Online Activities).
Despite modest steps to increase internet access, Cuba remains one of the world’s least connected and most repressive environments for information and communication technologies.
The government of Cuba has moved to improve internet access on the island since 2015 through the establishment of hundreds of cybercafés and public Wi-Fi hotspots, with access rates falling from CUC 2 to 1.50 per hour in late 2016. Home internet connections also became legally available to the public for the first time in December 2016, although limited to two Old Havana neighborhoods and a handful of provincial capitals. Nevertheless, prices still make access far too costly for most Cubans and nothing has been done to remove the Western hemisphere’s most draconian media laws and the many other legal restrictions on internet freedom. Even for those able afford the new access points, the tiny supply of internet access, mostly concentrated in the capital, is grossly out of proportion with the demands of a country of more than 11 million people.
As a result, Cubans have come up with multiple informal but tolerated work-arounds to gain internet access. Inventive strategies include an island-wide offline “packet” digital data distribution network, a series of local area networks linking up thousands of users in urban areas, and the use of various signal amplification devices to share or sell Wi-Fi signals. With the spread of cell phones have come multiple apps that allow Cubans to quickly download information from preselected sites when connected to Wi-Fi, provide a VPN to mask the user’s online activity and permit access to blocked sites, and share their signal with other nearby mobile devices. Cuba has also seen the spread of tech start-ups that serve its growing micro-enterprise sector and offline apps built to resemble cloud-based apps but configured to function in Cuba’s largely offline environment.
While the Cuban government faces increased pressure from its own citizens and the international community to expand access to the global internet, the optimism derived from normalization of relations with the U.S. and the increasing access may be premature. The Cuban government has been cautious in opening to U.S. telecom or internet companies, with only a handful of mostly symbolic deals struck. Many worry that Cuban policy is inspired by the example of China and that new infrastructure will not mean an end to government control. In fact, Cuba’s partnerships with Chinese internet hardware companies like Huawei may indicate that Cuba is already imitating China’s successful strategy of increasing access while maintaining control.
Despite the noteworthy emergence of several web-based information sites offering alternative news and information about Cuban reality, the government has continued to exert control over the digital landscape by blocking critical independent news sites, removing or blocking SMS content deemed “counter-revolutionary,” and arresting or harassing online writers. While Raul Castro has reiterated his intention to not stand for re-election as Cuba’s President in February 2018, the government’s cautious and monopolistic digital media policies are likely to continue. The main contender to succeed Raul Castro, Miguel Díaz-Canel, has made statements in favor of greater access to information, but has also called to step up internet monitoring and confront supposedly subversive users.
Penetration rates and internet speeds continue to lag behind regional averages, and access to the global internet in Cuba is extremely restricted, due to high prices and government regulation of access points. Nevertheless, some openings have taken place over the past years, and more Cubans have gained access to the global internet or to other channels for sharing information with fellow citizens. During the past year, the government’s priority focused on expanding the number of Wi-Fi hotspots and launching its first ever home access pilot project.
Availability and Ease of Access
According to Cuba’s National Statistics Office (ONEI), there were 4.5 million internet users in Cuba in 2016, representing 40.3 percent of the population, up from 34.8 percent in 2015.1 However, internet penetration numbers provided by ITU may also include users who can only access the government-controlled intranet. Experts have estimated that a much smaller percentage of Cubans have access to the global internet.2
For years, most Cubans have been denied internet access or relegated to a government-controlled intranet, which consists of a national email system, a Cuban encyclopedia, a pool of educational materials and open-access journals, Cuban websites, and foreign websites that are supportive of the Cuban government. Resolution 92/2003 prohibits email and other ICT service providers from granting access to individuals who are not approved by the government, and requires that they enable only domestic chat services, not international ones. Entities that violate these regulations can be penalized with suspension or revocation of their authorization to provide access.3 The intranet can be accessed through government-run internet access centers, the offices of the state-owned Telecommunications Company of Cuba S.A. (ETECSA), or state-run cybercafés. Although most foreign websites are now available at state-run access sites, the cost of accessing non-Cuban sites remains higher.
While home connections are virtually non-existent, the government has taken modest steps to enable public access to wired and wireless internet in recent years. In June 2013, citizens began to access the internet through broadband connections to the new fiber-optic cable at government-run “navigation halls.” Between 2016 and 2017 the government’s priority shifted from the cybercafés to expanding the number of Wi-Fi hotspots and launching its first ever home access pilot project under the name “Nauta Hogar.” According to ETECSA, there were more than 1,000 public access points on the island in 2016, including state-run cybercafés, public Wi-Fi hotspots, and Wi-Fi at hotels and airports.4
First launched in June 2015, paid public Wi-Fi hotspots accessible through the government platform Nauta have become a popular way to access the internet, despite the high cost and complaints about the quality of service. ETECSA has boasted that some 250,000 users connect daily at Wi-Fi zones and there is even a slowly unfolding plan to convert the entire expanse of Havana’s iconic Malecón into one continuous Wi-Fi hotspot.56 By September 2017, ETECSA’s website listed over 400 Wi-Fi hotspots.7
Users pay for internet service directly at navigation halls or by purchasing a 1- or 5-hour “Nauta” card, which allows them to access temporary accounts, valid for 30 calendar days from the date of the first session. Such cards/accounts can be used to open sessions at cybercafés or in any of the country’s Wi-Fi hotspots and international hotels that use the Nauta system. Cuban citizens and permanent residents are also able to open permanent Nauta accounts, complete with a username, password, and e-mail address (which can be linked to their cell phone for direct access to their Nauta e-mail when not near a Wi-Fi hotspot). Users must accept the higher level of surveillance associated with the convenience of such personal accounts. ETECSA monitors accounts and retains the right to end a user’s access for a sweeping range of violations (see Surveillance, Privacy, and Anonymity). Since these two services were inaugurated in 2013, a total of 1.3 million permanent accounts have been opened and 11 million 1-hour cards have been sold.8
High costs and slow speeds constitute major barriers, mainly due to weak domestic infrastructure. Most Cubans continue to face extremely slow connections of 1 Mbps, even at Wi-Fi hotspots.9 While the government has cut prices for internet access points, hourly charges still amount to roughly 7-10 percent of the average monthly salary.10 In December 2016, ETECSA further reduced the hourly charge for using the internet at state-run cybercafés from CUC 2 to 1.50 per hour.11 This was again lowered from CUC 1.50 to 1 in late October 2017. Likewise, for a much lower fee of CUC 0.60 an hour (lowered to 0.25 and then to 0.10 per hour during the first half of 2017), Cubans are able to access the “intranet,” or domestic websites only.12
In early 2008, after a nearly decade-long ban, the government began allowing Cubans to buy personal computers, but prohibitively high costs place computers beyond the reach of most people.13 Out of a population of 11.3 million, the number of computers was only 1.15 million in 2016 with just 628,000 having internet connectivity.14 Phones that utilize Global Positioning System (GPS) technology or satellite connections are explicitly prohibited by Cuban customs regulations.15 Additional restrictions are placed on modems, wireless faxes, and satellite dishes, which require special permits in order to enter the country.16 These regulations have not completely stopped the entry of such devices into Cuba. In fact, during 2016-2017 the importation and use of NanoStations and other similar technologies that allow users to amplify and share Wi-Fi signals from ETECSA hotspots became increasingly common, allowing many Cubans to gain home or office access to internet long before the government finally began commercializing it to a tiny group of Old Havana residents in late 2016.17
Although Cuba still has the lowest mobile phone penetration rate in Latin America, the rate is rising. According to a report to the National Assembly by Cuba’s Minister of Communications, in July 2017 some 4.3 million Cubans owned mobile lines.18 As the number of mobile phone users has grown, ETECSA began implementing small changes to benefit users.19 Yet despite price cuts and occasional promotions, the cost of mobile and internet service is still too high for the majority of Cubans. The government’s strategy seems to be predicated on convincing Cuban exiles to pay for these services for their relatives in Cuba—viewed by many as an attempt to attract new funds. Since January 2014, friends and relatives living abroad can use an online service to pay the phone bills and Nauta internet accounts, including the newly inaugurated home access program Nauta Hogar, of users living on the island.20
After rumors circulated throughout 2016 that the new year would finally see a 3G mobile deployment in Cuba permitting internet data traffic on Cuban cellphones for the first time, ETECSA began tests to that effect in Santiago de Cuba on April 8, 2017.21 Due to second generation cell phone infrastructure, most mobile phone users are unable to browse the web, but it is possible to send and receive international text messages and images with certain phones. Moreover, a growing number of Cubans have more advanced smartphones, often gifts from wealthier relatives living abroad.22
Originally rumored to start in August 2016, the launch of Cuba’s first ever home-based internet access did not begin until December 2016, when it was available to 2,000 potential customers for a two-month free trial period through February 28, 2017. Inexplicably, only 858 homes were actually equipped with these free trial connections during this time. Then, due to very high access rates and slow connection speeds, only 358 customers decided to keep the service in March when they had to begin paying for it. Initially, prices ranged from CUC 15 per month for 30 hours of an extremely slow 128 kbps connection to CUC 115 per month for 30 hours at a speed of 2 Mbps. Given the paltry number of customers and the many complaints about the quality of the slowest connection, ETECSA lowered prices significantly in March-April, 2017. After that, the 128 kbps speed was eliminated and CUC 15 per month would then buy 30 hours of 256 kbps speed service, while the top tier rate for 30 hours/month for 2 Mbps was lowered from CUC 115 to 70. This had the desired effect of attracting more customers, especially for the higher speeds and rates. Still, by May 2017 there were only 600 total Nauta Hogar customers, though the government still has the likely unattainable goal of signing up 38,000 customers by the close of 2017.23
To overcome access limitations, some Cubans have improvised underground networks. Inventive strategies include an island-wide off-line “packet” digital data distribution network, a series of local area networks or sneaker-nets (SNETs) linking up thousands of users in urban areas, and the use of various signal amplification devices such as NanoStations to share or sell Wi-Fi signals.24 Two popular apps that aid Cubans in sharing are Zapya, which allows for easy wireless sharing of data across two or more devices, and Connectify, which allows for the easy sharing of a Wi-Fi internet signal with others. Another popular app called Psiphon allows users to create a virtual private network (VPN) that simultaneously protects their anonymity and allows them to connect from a Nauta Wi-Fi hotspot to blocked sites in Cuba such as Cubanet, 14ymedio, or Diario de Cuba.25 The underground economy of internet access also includes account sharing, in which authorized users sell access to those without an official account for CUC 1-2 per hour.
Restrictions on Connectivity
The backbone structure of the internet in Cuba is entirely controlled by the government, and state authorities have the capability and the legal mandate to restrict connectivity at will. At times of heightened political sensitivity, the government has used its complete control of the cell phone network to selectively obstruct citizens’ communications. A report published by the Open Observatory of Network Interference (OONI) in August 2017 found that Skype was the only popular communication tool to be blocked, based on tests conducted between May and mid-June 2017 (see Blocking and Filtering).26
The ICT sector remains dominated by government firms. Cuba's monopoly telecommunication service provider ETECSA (Empresa de Telecomunicaciones de Cuba S.A.) is owned by the state.27 Cubacel, a subsidiary of ETECSA, is the only mobile phone carrier.
Following the announcement of a normalization of relations between the United States and Cuba in December 2014, regulatory amendments have opened the way for U.S. ICT companies to start offering services to the island. In September 2015, Verizon was the first U.S.-based wireless company to offer roaming in Cuba, quickly followed by Sprint and others.28 In December 2016, Google reached a deal with ETECSA to allow it to place its servers on the island, with the aim to facilitate access to Google’s popular content and free services. While Google’s servers will increase the speed and quality of the Cuban internet experience, they will not expand the number of users nor will they lower the price of access.29
These developments come after a period of limited market reforms in Cuba.30 In November 2013, ETECSA announced that it would allow private workers to market local and long-distance telephone services to the population as self-employed communications agents. The agents may also sell prepaid cards for fixed and mobile telephone services and internet access.31 The Cuban government also began to allow the limited creation of private cooperatives by computer science graduates in 2012, but tight internet restrictions, along with prohibitively high computer and software pricing, resulted in a nonexistent official market, although a black market for such commodities exists.32
There is a burgeoning sector of tech start-ups in Cuba that have developed websites and offline mobile phone applications. Leading business directories or “classified” sites include ConoceCuba, Isladentro, and AlaMesa (focusing on private “paladar” restaurants). Other popular and innovative start-ups include Cubazon (a grassroots Cuban version of Amazon that allows the ordering and delivery of goods), Knales (a data retrieval app that uses SMS messaging allowing its users to gain access to web data), and Kwelta (a cultural calendar cum publicity service).33 However, on August 1, 2017 the government announced a temporary freeze in the issuance of any new licenses for private computer programmers (along with more than 25 other popular freelancer occupations) until “violations and irregularities” could be brought under control.34
No independent regulatory body for managing the ICT sector exists in Cuba. In 2000, the Ministry of Informatics and Communication (MIC) was created to serve as the regulatory authority for the internet. Within the MIC, the Cuban Supervision and Control Agency oversees the development of internet-related technologies.35
Cuban law places strict limits on free speech and outlaws independent media. Although many foreign news websites are accessible from internet access points, websites focused on Cuban news and websites from Cuban dissidents are often blocked. Despite connectivity limitations, Cubans have been able to access content through improvisational underground networks and USB flash drives containing content downloaded from the internet. Several independent web-based information sites have also emerged, offering alternative discourses about the Cuban reality.
Blocking and Filtering
Rather than relying on the technically sophisticated filtering and blocking used by other repressive regimes, the Cuban government continues to limit users’ access to information primarily via lack of technology and prohibitive costs.
The websites of foreign news outlets—including the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), El País, the Financial Times, and El Nuevo Herald (a Miami-based Spanish-language daily)—are accessible in Cuba. However, ETECSA commonly blocks dissident or independent news outlets and several sites of Cuban activists and dissident organizations. A recent report by the Open Observatory of Network Interference (OONI) confirmed ETECSA’s blocking of 41 websites, based on tests conducted on 1,458 websites from eight locations between May 29 and June 10, 2017. Blocked sites included news outlets and blogs such as 14ymedio, Cubaencuentro, Martí Noticias, those focusing on human rights issues such as the site of the “Ladies in White” movement led by relatives of jailed dissidents, and several anonymity and circumvention tools such as Anonymouse. Freedom House was also among the human rights sites blocked.36 Revolico, a platform for posting classified advertisements for products circulating on the black market was only recently unblocked, according to reports in August 2016.37
Moreover, a series of recent tests conducted by 14ymedio found that ETECSA’s cellphone network, Cubacel, has been systematically filtering domestic SMS containing specific words, such as “democracia” (democracy), “dictadura” (dictatorship), and “derechos humanos” (human rights). This strategy blocks all messages containing the key words on all devices sent or received both by known activists and other uninvolved users. Text messages received from abroad containing such terms are also blocked, while outgoing international texts are unimpeded. In all cases, users are charged for the unsent messages and never notified of the blocking.38
Social-networking platforms such as Facebook and Twitter are sometimes blocked at certain universities and government institutions, but may be accessed—with consistent monitoring and varying reliability—from Wi-Fi hotspots, some cybercafés, and hotels. While Skype is blocked, alternative apps such as IMO have become a popular way to video chat with relatives abroad.39 In recent years, the government also increased its control over the use of e-mail in official institutions, installing a platform that restricts spam and specifically prevents the transmission of “chain letters critical of the government.”40
Blocking occurs not only at the national level but also at the level of various intranet networks. In March 2015, the Nauta intranet banned Larry Press’ blog, The Internet in Cuba, one of the best sources about Cuban ICTs.41 In January 2015, the University of Computer Sciences (UCI) banned Fernando Ravsberg's blog Cartas desde Cuba, which had been hosted on the BBC Mundo platform from 2008 to 2013 until becoming independent.42
The wording of certain government provisions regarding content regulation is vague and allows for a wide array of posts to be censored without judicial oversight. Resolution 56/1999 stipulates that all materials intended for publication or dissemination on the internet must first be approved by the National Registry of Serial Publications.43 Meanwhile, Resolution 179 (2008) authorizes ETECSA to “take the necessary steps to prevent access to sites whose contents are contrary to social interests, ethics and morals, as well as the use of applications that affect the integrity or security of the state.”44
While ETECSA does not proactively police networks and delete content, several blogs hosted on the government-sponsored blog platform Reflejos have faced censorship by its moderators.45 In April 2017 for example, a technology blog called TuAndroid was temporarily suspended and an article which criticized new top-up deals offered by ETECSA was removed.46 Another takedown in February 2016 concerned a blog on sexual diversity called “Proyecto Arcoiris” (Rainbow Project).47
After launching her independent digital newspaper 14ymedio, Yoani Sánchez tested the tolerance of the Reflejos blogging platform by posting articles from the newspaper there. However, her blog there was also removed permanently in March 2015. Although the government said that there were no prohibited topics on the platform and that it was open to all Cuban users, they required bloggers to register with information cards and prohibited the publication of unlawful or counter-revolutionary content.48
Media, Diversity and Content Manipulation
Cuba has one of the most restrictive media environments in the world. The constitution prohibits privately-owned media, and restricts speech that does not “conform to the aims of a socialist society.” The government closely monitors users who post or access political information online and delivers harsh penalties to those it perceives as dissidents. Demand for access to content among the Cuban population, however, has led to elaborate underground networks of internet access.
The cost of access to technologies that facilitate information sharing continues to be high, and the Cuban government has pursued individuals who violate telecommunications access laws. Nonetheless, many Cubans find ways to access restricted content, and a vibrant community of bloggers in Cuba utilizes the medium to report on conditions within the country. Cubans are often able to break through infrastructural blockages by building their own antennas, using illegal dial-up connections, or developing blogs on foreign platforms. There is also a thriving improvisational system of “sneakernets,” in which USB flash drives and data discs are used to distribute materials (articles, prohibited photos, satirical cartoons, video clips) that have been downloaded from the internet or stolen from government offices.49 The “Paquete Semanal” (“Weekly Package”) has become a popular offline alternative for accessing music, movies, TV series, mobile phone apps, magazines, and classifieds.50 However, given the routine self-censorship practiced by the compilers of the paquete, some users feel it has become too “tame” in its avoidance of hot political topics. As a result, a more strictly clandestine alternative has appeared in recent years calling itself “El paketito” (“The little packet”), which attempts to fill the gaps left by the more mainstream packet. The Cuban government has also joined this battle over alternative digital media with the state-sponsored Youth Computer Clubs (JCC) producing its own digital compendium of material originally known as “El Maletín” (“The briefcase”) and more recently “La Mochila” (“The backpack”).51
Despite severe censorship in official media, some journalists have started using the internet to disseminate content that the official press is reluctant to publish. In May 2014, Yoani Sánchez launched an independent online news site, 14ymedio. Although the site is blocked in Cuba, the editorial team is able to post content by emailing it to friends abroad. Cubans on the island can also subscribe to a weekly e-mail digest of the digital newspaper, which is much more difficult to block. (This strategy is also used by Diario de Cuba, among many other independent digital platforms). Users also access content from the site through proxies, using a VPN app on their cellphone, and offline versions that are shared via USB flash drives.52 While the government policy on political content is still very restrictive, there has been a recent surge in the number of independent digital media sites produced by increasingly professional Cuban teams on the island – often working in concert with collaborators abroad. Not all are linked to or consider themselves as dissident. For example, sites such as Periodismo de Barrio and El Estornudo produce critical investigative journalism, while others such as El Toque, Cachivache Media, Vistar Magazine, Garbos, Play-Off, and OnCuba report on a wide variety of topics, including entertainment, sports, fashion, and culture, while expressing a cross-section of views on social issues.53
On the other hand, the government has tried to direct popular demand for videos, games, and online social networking to government-controlled platforms. Following in the footsteps of other repressive regimes contending with a highly literate and digitally interested audience, the government launched its own copycat versions of popular websites such as Wikipedia, Twitter, and Facebook. This allows the government to direct citizens to closely monitored, censored versions of these platforms. In 2010 the government launched Ecured, a copycat version of Wikipedia,54 and in 2013 they launched the social networking site La Tendedera, which is accessible from youth centers.55 In March 2015, the government launched the blogging platform Reflejos, where content can only be published from a Cuban IP address.56
Networks of progovernment journalists have also disseminated content online to counter alternative discourses about Cuban reality. A report on digital journalism published by Fundación Telefónica notes how Cuban authorities have activated “defense mechanisms” online, by accusing critical and independent sites of perpetrating a constant media campaign against the island. Such a narrative “converts independent voices into “mercenaries” or traitors, with the ultimate objective of criminalizing dissent.”57
Along with low internet penetration, social media access continues to be limited and Cubans have not been able to organize large-scale campaigns around political objectives. Available at Wi-Fi hotspots, Facebook has become a popular platform for social networking, while other platforms such as Twitter are less widely used.58
Political activists seeking to raise further awareness via social media have encountered government clampdowns. Cuban activists inside and outside Cuba launched the campaign #TodosMarchamos (We All March) in mid-2015 to denounce human rights violations on the island and recurring repression against the "Ladies in White,” a dissident group that protests against the Cuban government every Sunday.59
Cuba outlaws a wide range of speech deemed to be counter-revolutionary or a threat to the public order. In recent years, the Cuban government has moved from issuing long, multi-year sentences to using short term detentions as a means of harassing independent journalists and bloggers. Several episodes of censorship and intimidation against bloggers and independent journalists were reported during this coverage period.
The Cuban legal structure is not favorable to internet freedom. The constitution explicitly subordinates freedom of speech to the objectives of a socialist society, and freedom of cultural expression is guaranteed only if such expression is not contrary to “the revolution.”60 The penal code (Law 62, Fifth Section) sets penalties ranging from a few months to 20 years in prison for any activity considered to be a threat to the Cuban state or public order, including a provision that authorizes the state to detain, reeducate, or monitor anyone who shows a “proclivity to commit crime” by violating the norms of the socialist society.61 Meanwhile, the Law to Protect Cuba’s National Independence and Economy (Law 88), passed in 1999, punishes any activity that threatens Cuban sovereignty or facilitates the U.S. blockade. Anyone who passes information to the U.S. government that could bolster the embargo can face up to 15 years in prison. Spreading subversive materials can incur a penalty of three to eight years in prison, while collaborating with foreign media outlets is punishable by up to five years in prison.62
In 1996, the government passed Decree-Law 209, which states that the internet cannot be used “in violation of Cuban society’s moral principles or the country’s laws,” and that email messages must not “jeopardize national security.”63 In 2007, a network security measure, Resolution 127, banned the use of public data-transmission networks for the spreading of information that is against the social interest, norms of good behavior, the integrity of people, or national security. The decree requires access providers to install controls that enable them to detect and prevent the proscribed activities, and to report them to the relevant authorities.64 Furthermore, access to the internet in Cuba generally requires complete identification, rendering anonymity nearly impossible.65
Prosecutions and Detentions for Online Activities
Under Raúl Castro, the Cuban government has shifted its repressive tactics from long-term imprisonment of independent journalists to short-term detentions, interrogations, and legal harassment.66 Short-term arrests and detentions of activists tend to increase surrounding key political and social events, and bloggers and online activists are often caught up in such crackdowns. Because it is difficult to distinguish between independent journalists and political activists in Cuba, however, it is often impossible to accurately pinpoint whether detentions were in retaliation for online speech specifically. In June 2017, the CCDHRN reported that while 2017 had seen fewer detentions than in past years, physical attacks against activists had increased. Still, the Madrid-based Cuban Observatory of Human Rights (OCDH), counted a total of 2,149 politically motivated arrests during the first five months of 2017.67
Independent digital media organizations and their correspondents experienced a surge in firings, detentions, harassment, and legal proceedings in 2016-2017.68 The cases of Maykel González Vivero and Elaine Díaz Rodríguez are noteworthy since both once worked in the state journalism sector but recently became active on independent digital sites. An LGBT activist, González was fired from his job at a state radio station in September 2016 for working part-time for non-state media outlets Diario de Cuba and El Estornudo. Then, the following month he attempted to cover the aftermath of Hurricane Matthew in Baracoa but was detained for three days, deported back home, and charged with “illicit economic activity” for attempting to work independently in a disaster zone without accreditation.69 Likewise, Díaz attempted to cover the hurricane recovery in Baracoa with a team of reporters from her recently-founded digital non-profit, Periodismo de Barrio, before also being detained and deported home.70
The government has also charged independent journalists with “usurpación de la capacidad legal” (encroachment of legal capacity) under Article 149 of the Penal Code, which prohibits “carrying out acts belonging to a profession the exercise of which one is not duly prepared.” Such was the case of Sol García Basulto, a journalist for digital magazine La Hora de Cuba and correspondent for the news website 14ymedio, who was placed under house arrest in July 2017 after being accused of “encroachment of legal capacity” along with fellow journalist Henry Constantín Ferreiro, also of La Hora de Cuba.71 In April 2017, two independent journalists and bloggers in Santiago de Cuba, Esteban Suárez Barbán and Manuel Salinas Espinosa, who collaborate with Diario de Cuba were banned “for life” from a Youth Computer Club and all other state-controlled internet access points. They were threatened with the criminal charge of “desacato” (disrespect), five years in prison, and told “the internet is for revolutionaries.”72
Moreover, Cuban YouTuber and Matanzas-based member of the activist group Somos Mas (We are more) Alexei Gámez was detained by state security agents on February 8, 2017 based on his many YouTube videos of political denunciation and technical instruction. In particular, Gámez had explained via YouTube how members of his audience on the island could connect to one of Cuba’s many illegal but often tolerated wireless local area networks, or SNETs. As punishment, authorities charged Gámez with “illicit economic activity,” seized all his audio-visual and computer equipment, and banned him from travel outside the province.73
Surveillance, Privacy, and Anonymity
Surveillance of ICTs in Cuba is widespread, and dissident bloggers are subject to punishments ranging from fines and searches to confiscation of equipment and detentions. Anonymity and encryption technologies are strictly prohibited in Cuba,74 and web access points, such as Wi-Fi hotspots, cybercafés and access centers, are closely monitored and users are required to register with their identification information.75
Despite constitutional provisions that protect various forms of communication and portions of the penal code that establish penalties for the violation of the secrecy of communications, users’ privacy is frequently violated. Tools for content surveillance are likewise pervasive. Under Resolution 179/2008, ISPs are required to register and retain the addresses of all traffic for at least one year.76 Reports indicate that the government routes most connections through proxy servers and is able to obtain user names and passwords through special monitoring software called Avila Link, which is installed at most ETECSA and public access points.77 In addition, delivery of email messages is consistently delayed, and it is not unusual for a message to arrive censored or without its attachments.
A decree from the Ministry of Communications reaffirmed the government’s continued monitoring of internet traffic, stating that ETECSA will immediately end a user’s access if he or she commits “any violation of the norms of ethical behavior promoted by the Cuban state.”78 Users must show their national ID cards and sign an agreement stating that they will not use the service for anything “that could be considered …damaging or harmful to public security”—a vague term that could presumably extend to political dissent.79
If users attempt to send an email with attachments, ETECSA’s own NAUTA interface system greets them with a pop-up window reminding them that “other people may see what you are sending” and asking if they wish to continue. Although the pop-up window is marked “Internet Explorer” and appears to be a real message generated by the search engine, several Cuban online users have said that they had never seen such a message when using internet cafés in Havana’s tourist hotels. Such claims suggest that ETECSA may have programmed computers at its new access points to prompt users as a reminder that the government is monitoring their online activities.
Intimidation and Violence
Although the majority of cases of physical violence against activists in Cuba appear to be in retaliation for public protests rather than online activity, prominent online users have faced violence from police forces, and users who have been jailed for extended periods of time report being mistreated and tortured.
Relatives of Cuban artist "El Sexto" Maldonado, who was detained for two months since November 26, 2016 after posting a video on Facebook and painting graffiti mocking Castro’s death, reported that he had been severely beaten while in detention.80
Technical attacks do not appear to be a primary method of censorship in the country, but have targeted some online outlets. In May 2014, 14ymedio was hacked one day after it was launched. Users who tried to access the site were redirected to a site called Yoani$landia, which insulted the director of the outlet, Yoani Sánchez.81 The site was restored shortly after the hack, even if the site has remained blocked since its launch for island-based internet users.
1 National Office of Statistics and Information (ONEI), “Tecnología de la Información y las Comunicaciones, 2016,” [Information and Communication Technology, 2016] http://www.onei.cu/aec2016/17%20Tecnologias%20de%20la%20Informacion.pdf (note: this report was published in August 2017 but covers the calendar year 2016).
2 For example, Cuban programmer Salvi Pascual of Apretaste.com found that while 30 percent of Cubans (3 million people) have some sort of “internet” access, the vast majority of these (2.8 million) have access to e-mail only, with just 5 percent (560,000) enjoying full web access. This estimate is based on an anonymous survey of approximately 1,000 users in Cuba, collected in 2016 through the app Apretaste, which offers uncensored access to the internet via email. See: https://apretaste.com/welcome.
3 According to the resolution, “Cuban websites that offer e-mail services cannot implement the creation of e-mail (Webmail) via an automatic process for natural persons or entities that are not duly authorized.” Legislación para el Sistema Nacional de Salud, Resolución Ministerial No 92/2003, July 18, 2003, http://bit.ly/1jhSxdD.
4 “Cuba supera los mil puntos públicos de acceso a Internet,” [Cuba exceeds 1,000 public internet access points ], Juventud Rebelde, September 8, 2016, http://www.juventudrebelde.cu/suplementos/informatica/2016-09-08/cuba-supera-los-mil-puntos-publicos-de-acceso-a-internet
5 “Unos 200 mil usuarios se conectan diariamente en las zonas wifi de Cuba” [Some 200,000 users connect to Wi-Fi hotspots on a daily basis in Cuba], EFE, March 29, 2016, http://bit.ly/2cnCs6g. See also “El ONEI dice que el número de usuarios de internet llegó a casi cuatro millones en 2015,” [The ONEI says that the number of internet users reached almost 4 million in 2015], October 27, 2016, http://www.diariodecuba.com/cuba/1477608755_26313.html; “ETECSA planea establecer conexión a internet en el Malecón,” [ETECSA plans to establish an internet connection along the Malecón], Diario de Cuba, September 21, 2016, www.diariodecuba.com/cuba/1474471537_25466.html; “Las tarifas de Nauta Hogar oscilan entre 15 y 115 CUC,” [The prices of Nauta Hogar range from 15 to 115 CUCs], Luz Escobar, 14ymedio, March 1, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/nacional/Etecsa-tarifas-Nauta_Hogar-pesos_convertibles_0_2172982686.html
6 “Cuba supera los mil puntos públicos de acceso a Internet” [Cuba surpasses more than 1,000 public internet access points], CiberCuba, September 9, 2016, http://bit.ly/2eFOZVm; see also ”Cuba cuenta con 250.000 conexiones diarias a internet, pese a triplicar los puntos wifi,” [Cuba counts 250,000 daily connections to the internet, despite tripling its Wi-Fi hotspots], 14ymedio, September 8, 2016, http://www.14ymedio.com/cienciaytecnologia/Cuba-conexiones-diarias-internet-triplicar_0_2068593131.html
7 ETECSA, “Espacios públicos de conexión inalámbrica (WIFI),” accessed September 14, 2017, http://www.etecsa.cu/internet_conectividad/areas_wifi/
8 “Cuba cuenta con 250.000 conexiones diarias a internet, pese a triplicar los puntos wifi,” [Cuba counts 250,000 daily connections to the internet, despite tripling its Wi-Fi hotspots], 14ymedio, September 8, 2016, www.14ymedio.com/cienciaytecnologia/Cuba-conexiones-diarias-internet-triplicar_0_2068593131.html
9 Jack Karsten and Darrel M. West, “Cuba slowly expands Internet access,” Tech Tank (blog), Brookings Institute, July 2, 2015, http://brook.gs/1KDrxLF; note however that the Cuban Minister of Communications reported in July 2017 that “international broadband speed doubled from 4 Gb/s to 8 Gb/s during 2016,” “Diputados analizan Política Integral para el Perfeccionamiento de la Informatización de la Sociedad en Cuba,” [Delegates analyse Comprehensive Policy for the Improvement of the Computerization of Society in Cuba], CubaDebate, July 13, 2017, www.cubadebate.cu/noticias/2017/07/13/diputados-analizan-politica-integral-para-el-perfeccionamiento-de-la-informatizacion-de-la-sociedad-en-cuba/#anexo-929649.
11 “Salas de navegación en Cuba listas para acceso a Internet” [Navegation halls in Cuba ready to Access the internet], Cubadebate, June 4, 2013, http://bit.ly/2elWjlt; “Etecsa: llegan rebajas, una nueva bolsa y un experimento de internet,” [Etecsa: prices drop, a new ‘bolsa,’ and an internet experiment], Yurisander Guevara, Juventud Rebelde, December 18, 2016, www.juventudrebelde.cu/cuba/2016-12-18/etecsa-llegan-rebajas-una-nueva-bolsa-y-un-experimento-de-internet/
12 “Etecsa baja los precios de internet y del correo Nauta,” [Etecsa lowers internet and Nauta e-mail prices], 14ymedio, December 19, 2016, http://www.14ymedio.com/nacional/Etecsa-precios-internet-correo-Nauta_0_2129787012.html; “ETECSA hace oficial la 'comercialización gradual' de internet en los hogares,” [ETECSA makes the ‘gradual commercialization’ of the internet in homes official], Diario de Cuba, March 21, 2017, http://www.diariodecuba.com/cuba/1490057659_29795.html; “Etecsa rebaja la tarifa para la navegación nacional,” [Etecsa lowers prices for national web access], 14ymedio, March 30, 2017, http://www.14ymedio.com/nacional/etecsa-rebaja-tarifa-navegacion_nacional-descuento_0_2190380945.html
14 National Office of Statistics and Information (ONEI), “Tecnología de la Información y las Comunicaciones, 2016,” [Information and Communication Technology, 2016] http://www.onei.cu/aec2016/17%20Tecnologias%20de%20la%20Informacion.pdf; “Cuban ICT statistics report for 2016,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), August 2, 2017, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2017/08/cuban-ict-statistics-report-for-2016.html
17 “Redes inalámbricas, la telaraña que envuelve la Isla,” [Wireless networks, the web that covers the island], Marcelo Hernández, 14ymedio, January 4, 2017 www.14ymedio.com/cienciaytecnologia/Redes-inalambricas-telarana-envuelve-Isla_0_2139386046.html; “An innovative street net with Internet access,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), June 27, 2016, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2016/06/an-innovative-street-net-with-internet.html; “Three generations of Cuban WiFi hotspot sharing,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), March 7, 2017, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2017/03/three-generations-of-cuban-wifi-hotspot.html
18 “Diputados analizan Política Integral para el Perfeccionamiento de la Informatización de la Sociedad en Cuba,” [Delegates analyse Comprehensive Policy for the Improvement of the Computerization of Society in Cuba], CubaDebate, July 13, 2017, www.cubadebate.cu/noticias/2017/07/13/diputados-analizan-politica-integral-para-el-perfeccionamiento-de-la-informatizacion-de-la-sociedad-en-cuba/#anexo-929649; “Cuban ICT statistics report for 2016,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), August 2, 2017, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2017/08/cuban-ict-statistics-report-for-2016.html
20 “ETECSA Informa Nuevos Servicios de Pagos por Internet para Cubanos” [ETECSA announces new internet payment services for Cubans], On Cuba, January 20, 2014, http://bit.ly/1G77ggd; José Remón, “ETECSA a la carga: Pagando la factura de mi pariente en Cuba” [Payment the bill for my family member in Cuba], Café Fuerte, January 22, 2014, http://bit.ly/1R5LPTs; “ETECSA rebaja 50 centavos la hora de conexión a internet y anuncia su experimento de acceso desde los hogares,” [ETECSA lowers an hour of internet access by 50 cents and announces its home access experiment], Diario de Cuba, December 19, 2016, www.diariodecuba.com/cuba/1482149264_27526.html; “ETECSA, internet y el abandono de 'los principios de la revolución',” [ETECSA, internet, and the abandonment of ‘the principles of the revolution’], Elías Amor, December 22, 2016, www.diariodecuba.com/cuba/1482342010_27594.html
21 “Etecsa inició pruebas para el tráfico de datos en celulares en Santiago,” [Etecsa began tests for data traffic on cell phones in Santiago], 14ymedio, April 24, 2017 www.14ymedio.com/cienciaytecnologia/Etecsa-pruebas-trafico-celulares-Santiago_0_2205379441.html; “Limited 3G mobile deployment -- hopefully an interim step,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), March 21, 2017, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2017/03/limited-3g-mobile-deployment-hopefully.html
23 “ETECSA hace oficial la 'comercialización gradual' de internet en los hogares,” [ETECSA hace oficial la 'comercialización gradual' de internet en los hogares], Diario de Cuba, March 21, 2017, www.diariodecuba.com/cuba/1490057659_29795.html; “Etecsa rebaja los precios de Nauta Hogar tras las quejas de los clientes,” [Etecsa lowers prices of Nauta Hogar after complains from customers], 14ymedio, April 5, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/nacional/nauta_hogar-etecsa-rebajas-clientes-internet-cuba-prueba_piloto_0_2193980589.html; “Más de 600 hogares ya tienen conexión a internet tras una prueba piloto,” [More than 600 homes already have an internet connection following a test run], 14ymedio, June 6, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/nacional/hogares-conexion-internet-prueba-piloto_0_2231176869.html; “Las tarifas de Nauta Hogar oscilan entre 15 y 115 CUC,” [The prices of Nauta Hogar range from 15 to 115 CUCs], Luz Escobar, 14ymedio, March 1, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/nacional/Etecsa-tarifas-Nauta_Hogar-pesos_convertibles_0_2172982686.html; “Old Havana fiber trial to begin August 20th? Many unanswered questions,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), July 29, 2016, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2016/07/old-havana-fiber-trial-to-begin-august.html; “The Cuban home-connectivity trial ends this week, rollout to begin next week,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), January 27, 2017, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2017/01/the-cuban-home-connectivity-trial-ends.html; “There is no Cuban home Internet plan -- and that's good news,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), February 22, 2017, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2017/02/there-is-no-cuban-home-internet-plan.html; “Etecsa llevará el servicio de Internet a los hogares de Bayamo,” [Etecsa will extend internet service to Bayamo homes], CubaDebate, July 17, 2017, www.cubadebate.cu/noticias/2017/07/17/etecsa-llevara-el-servicio-de-internet-a-los-hogares-de-bayamo/#.WYkCBZ1VhBd; “Traslados, Wifi, 3G e Internet en los hogares a debate con ETECSA,” [Transfers, Wi-Fi, 3G, and home internet access up for debate with ETECSA], MesaRedonda, May 10, 2017, mesaredonda.cubadebate.cu/mesa-redonda/2017/05/10/traslados-wifi-3g-e-internet-en-los-hogares-a-debate-con-etecsa/; “DSL Internet available in some Bayamo homes,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), July 20, 2017, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2017/07/dsl-internet-available-in-some-bayamo.html
24 “Inside Cuba’s D.I.Y. Internet Revolution,” Antonio García Martínez, Wired, July 26, 2017, https://www.wired.com/2017/07/inside-cubas-diy-internet-revolution/; “Internet llega a los hogares cubanos a pesar de ETECSA” [Internet arrives to Cuban households despite ETECSA], Cubanet, June 16, 2016, http://bit.ly/2eFWFqw
25 “Connectify será gratuito en Cuba para compartir el acceso a internet,” [Connectify will be free in Cuba for sharing internet access], 14ymedio, April 6, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/nacional/Connectify-gratuito-Cuba-compartir-internet_0_2194580533.html; “Zapya, la red de los desconectados,” [Zapya, the network of the disconnected], Zunilda Mata, 14ymedio, January 25, 2016, www.14ymedio.com/cienciaytecnologia/Zapya-red-desconectados_0_1932406748.html; “Mamá, estoy chateando por Zapya,” [Mom, I’m chatting on Zapya], Zunilda Mata, 14ymedio, July 21, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/nacional/Mama-chateando-Zapya-Cuba-cubanos-estudiantes_cubanos-escuela_cubana-acoso_en_Cuba_0_2258174167.html; “Conoce ‘Psiphon’, la app que vence la censura,” [Meet ‘Psiphon,’ the app that defeats censorship], Orlando González y Pablo González, Cubanet, November 17, 2016, https://www.cubanet.org/destacados/conoce-psiphon-la-app-que-vence-la-censura-a-internet/
27 The private firm Telecom Italia previously held shares of ETECSA until February 2011, when the state-owned company Rafin S.A., a financial firm known for its connections to the military, bought Telecom Italia’s 27 percent stake for US$706 million. Since then, the telecom company has been completely owned by six Cuban state entities. See: Jerrold Colten, “Telecom Italia Sells Etecsa Stake to Rafin SA For $706 Million,” Bloomberg Business, January 31, 2011, http://bloom.bg/1YFxlyo
29 “Google acelerará, pero no expandirá el acceso a internet en Cuba,” [Google will accelerate but no expand internet access in Cuba], Zunilda Mata, 14ymedio, December 13, 2016, www.14ymedio.com/cienciaytecnologia/Google-acelerara-expandira-internet-Cuba_0_2126187369.html; “Google Global Cache entra en Cuba sin un impacto significativo para los usuarios,” [Google Global Cache kicks off in Cuba without a significant impact for users], Zunilda Mata, 14ymedio, April 27, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/nacional/Google-Global-Cache-Cuba-significativo_0_2207179267.html; “Google Global Cache coming to Cuba,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), December 9, 2016, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2016/12/google-global-cache-coming-to-cuba.html. Brett Perlmutter, Google’s representative in Cuba, confirmed the increased speed and reduced latency of Google services in Cuba on July 23, 2017, https://twitter.com/BrettPerlmutter/status/889173036330614786
33 AlaMesa: Todo cubierto y servido en un click,” [AlaMesa: Everything covered and served in a click], Sayli Sosa Barceló, Invasor, June 10, 2017, www.invasor.cu/es/sociedad/13813-a-la-mesa-todo-cubierto-y-servido-en-un-click; “TechCrunch panel -- three Cuban software companies,” Larry Press, The Internet in Cuba (blog), May 30, 2017, laredcubana.blogspot.com/2017/05/techcrunch-panel-three-cuban-companies.html; “Los emprendedores cubanos, a la espera de un ‘punto de inflexión’ en internet,” 14ymedio, May 15, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/nacional/emprendedores-cubanos-espera-inflexion-internet_0_2217978194.html
34 “Trabajo por Cuenta Propia: Por la ruta de la actualización,” [Self-Employment: On the Route to Updating], Yaima Puig Meneses, Granma, August 1, 2017, www.granma.cu/cuba/2017-08-01/por-la-ruta-de-la-actualizacion-01-08-2017-00-08-07; Gaceta Oficial, No. 31 Extraordinaria, Resolución No. 22/2017 (GOC-2017-506-EX31), sobre trabajo por cuenta propia, [Resolution No. 22/2017 about self-employment], August 1, 2017, http://www.14ymedio.com/nacional/GOC-2017-EX31_CYMFIL20170801_0001.pdf
37 “El Gobierno levanta la censura contra Revolico” [Government lifts censorship against Revolico], 14ymedio, August 12, 2016, http://bit.ly/2eH7pVK; See also: Jason Koebler, “Cuba’s Black Market Is a Website That Exists Primarily Offline,” Motherboard (blog), Vice, August 27, 2015, http://bit.ly/1Q3uKJf
38 “Cubacel censura los SMS con las palabras ‘democracia’ o ‘huelga de hambre,’” [Cubacel censors SMS with the words “democracy” and “hunger strike”], Yoani Sánchez and Reinaldo Escobar, 14ymedio, September 3, 2016, http://bit.ly/2bS1VE2; “Lista de frases y terminos bloqueados por Cubacel,” [List of phrases and terms blocked by Cubacel], 14ymedio, September 3, 2016, http://www.14ymedio.com/reportajes/Lista-frases-terminos-bloqueados-Cubacel_0_2064993491.html; “Netizen Report: In Cuba, Text Messages With Controversial Content Are Disappearing,” Global Voices, September 15, 2016, https://globalvoices.org/2016/09/15/netizen-report-in-cuba-text-messages-with-controversial-content-are-disappearing/
39 “The Cuban Internet: Letter from Havana,” Foreign Affairs, April 19, 2016, http://fam.ag/2cV544o; see also: Sayli Sosa, “IMO in Cuba: Shortening Distances Between Relatives,” Havana Times, July 30, 2015, http://bit.ly/2e7qezq
42 Fernando Ravsberg, “La UCI censura ‘Cartas desde Cuba’,” Cartas Desde Cuba (blog), January 29, 2015, http://bit.ly/1Kzr3t5; See also Cuba Red, “Otra censura. Fernando Rasverg. Increible,” posted by elapap, February 2, 2015, http://bit.ly/2d4rMf5
45 María Matienzo Puerto, “Guerra contra las subculturas en la plataforma 'Reflejos'” [War against the subcultures on the plaform Reflejos], Diario de Cuba, June 20, 2016, http://bit.ly/2d6Lfrh; See also: “Censura en Cuba se cobra otra víctima en la plataforma bloguera,” [Censorship in Cuba claims another victim on blogging platform], Cibercuba, May 3, 2016, http://bit.ly/2cIgd7V
46 “TuAndroid vuelve a publicar tras una semana de ‘castigo’ oficialista,” Cubanet, April 20, 2017, https://www.cubanet.org/tecnologia-2/tuandroid-vuelve-publicar-tras-una-semana-de-castigo-oficialista/
49 Jonathan Watts, “Cuba’s ‘offline internet’: no access, no power, no problem,” The Guardian, December 23, 2014, http://gu.com/p/44dcf/stw; See also: Emilio San Pedro, “Cuban internet delivered weekly by hand,” BBC, August 10, 2015, http://bbc.in/1TjpO8x; Jack Karsten and Darrel M. West, “Cuba slowly expands Internet access,” Tech Tank (blog), Brookings Institute, July 2, 2015, http://brook.gs/1KDrxLF
51 Luz Escobar, “El ‘paketito,’ un rival clandestino para el ‘paquete’,” [The ‘paketito,’ a clandestine rival for the ‘paquete’], 14ymedio, May 5, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/cienciaytecnologia/paketito-rival-clandestino-paquete_0_2211978784.html
53 Ted A. Henken, “Cuba’s Digital Millennials: Independent Digital Media and Civil Society on the Island of the Disconnected,” Social Research, Vol. 84, No. 2 (Summer 2017), www.socres.org/single-post/2017/06/26/Vol-84-No-2-Summer-2017; Daniel Wizenberg, “New Cuban journalism emerges on the internet, beyond the official and opposition media,” Journalism in the Americas (blog), July 20, 2016, http://bit.ly/29Zw3tO; See also: “Millennials lead private media opening in Communist-run Cuba,” Reuters, September 16, 2016, http://reut.rs/2cvgQnk; “Connecting Cuba: More Space for Criticism but Restrictions Slow Press Freedom Progress,” Committee to Protect Journalists, September 2016, https://cpj.org/reports/2016/09/connecting-cuba-internet-bloggers-press-freedom-criticism.php; Cuba’s Parallel Worlds: Digital Media Crosses the Divide,” Anne Nelson, Center for International Media Assistance (CIMA), August 30, 2016, http://www.cima.ned.org/publication/cubas-parallel-worlds-digital-media-crosses-divide/; Sociedad Interamericana de la Prensa (SIP), [Inter-American Press Society], Cuba Annual Report, Yoani Sánchez, October 13, 2016, www.sipiapa.org/notas/1210773-cuba
56 Dirección de Comunicación Institucional Joven Club, “La plataforma de blog ‘Reflejos’ tuvo hoy su lanzamiento oficial en el Palacio Central” [Reflejos blog platform officially launched today at the Central Palace], news release, Ministry of Communications, March 18, 2015, http://bit.ly/1NRxREB
58 A survey conducted by Ding found that 95 percent of users go on Facebook for social purposes at local Wi-Fi hotspots: “New survey finds 70% of Cuban internet users use local Wi-Fi hotspots every week,” Ding, June 7, 2016, http://bit.ly/2cInNiz
59 “Activistas organizan un 'tuitazo' para denunciar la represión del régimen,” [Activists organize a Twitter campaign to denounce the regime’s repression], Diario de Cuba, May 30, 2015, http://bit.ly/2d9o0zZ
64 Giovanni Ziccardi, Resistance, Liberation Technology, and Human Rights in the Digital Age, (Netherlands, Springer, 2013) 220.
66 Human Rights Watch, “Cuba,” in World Report 2016, accessed September 18, 2016, http://bit.ly/1ZNmEc1; See also: Committee to Protect Journalists (CPJ), After the Black Spring, Cuba’s New Repression, July 6, 2011, https://cpj.org/x/4472
67 “Menos detenciones y más agresiones físicas contra activistas, denuncia la CCDHRN,” [Fewer detentions and more physical attacks against activists denounces CCDHRN], 14ymedio, June 5, 2017 www.14ymedio.com/nacional/detenciones-agresiones-activistas-denuncia-CCDHRN_0_2230576927.html
68 Nora Gámez-Torres, “Cuban government steps up campaign against independent media,” The Miami Herald, September 29, 2016, www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/cuba/article104898676.html; Sociedad Interamericana de la Prensa (SIP), [Inter-American Press Society], Cuba Annual Report, Yoani Sánchez, October 13, 2016, www.sipiapa.org/notas/1210773-cuba
69 “Cuban Journalist and LGBT Activist Sacked for Working With Non-State Media,” Global Voices, September 6, 2016, https://globalvoices.org/2016/09/06/cuban-journalist-and-lgbt-activist-sacked-for-working-with-non-state-media/; Ted A. Henken, “Cuban “Cuba’s Digital Millennials: Independent Digital Media and Civil Society on the Island of the Disconnected,” Social Research, Vol. 84, No. 2 (Summer 2017), www.socres.org/single-post/2017/06/26/Vol-84-No-2-Summer-2017
70 Journalist Elaine Diaz and Colleagues Arrested For Reporting on Hurricane Matthew ‘Without a Permit’,” Global Voices, October 13, 2016, https://globalvoices.org/2016/10/13/cuban-journalist-elaine-diaz-and-colleagues-arrested-for-reporting-on-hurricane-matthew-without-a-permit/;”¿Quiénes tienen derecho a contar un país? Todos sus ciudadanos,” [Who has the right to tell stories about a country? All its citizens], Periodismo del Barrio, October 16, 2016, https://www.periodismodebarrio.org/2016/10/16/quienes-tienen-derecho-a-contar-un-pais/
71 “La policía de Camagüey prohíbe a Sol García Basulto y Henry Constantín el ejercicio del periodismo,” [Camagüey police prohibit Sol García Basulto and Henry Constantín from the exercise of journalism], 14ymedio, May 4, 2017, http://www.14ymedio.com/nacional/Camaguey-Sol-Garcia-Henry-Constantin_0_2211378851.html; “La policía impone ‘prisión domiciliaria’ a la Periodista Sol García Basulto,” [The police impose ‘house arrest’ against the journalist Sol García Basulto], 14ymedio, July 2017, http://www.14ymedio.com/nacional/domiciliaria-periodista-Sol-Garcia-Basulto_0_2259973990.html
72 “Internet es ‘para los revolucionarios’: la Seguridad del Estado prohíbe el acceso a un periodista independiente,” [‘Internet is for revolutionaries’: State Security denies access to an independent journalist], Diario de Cuba, April 13, 2017, www.diariodecuba.com/derechos-humanos/1492041783_30353.html
73 “Etecsa acusa a un ‘youtuber’ de actividad económica ilícita,” [Etecsa accuses a ‘Youtuber’ of illicit economic activity], 14ymedio, February 8, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/nacional/Movimiento_Somos-youtuber-Alexei_Gamez_0_2160383954.html; “Alexei Gámez: ‘Antes de la wifi este era un pueblo muerto’,” [Alexei Gámez: ‘Before Wi-Fi this was a dead town’], Luz Escobar, 14ymedio, February 21, 2017, www.14ymedio.com/reportajes/Alexei_Gamez-Wifi-internet-Seguridad_del_Estado_0_2168183164.html
74 According to the Cuban Mission to the United Nations, encryption is only permissible if authorized by the Ministry of Communications and the Ministry of the Interior. Letter from the Permanent Mission of Cuba to the ONU to the High Commission on Human Rights, 2015, República de Cuba Misión Permanente ante la Oficina de las Naciones Unidas en Ginebra y los Organismos Internacionales con sede en Suiza, “Nota No. 211/2015,” [Note No. 211/2015], http://bit.ly/1JtNsUE; See also: Rolando Cartaya, “Crítica Relator de ONU Control a Cifrado de Datos Personales en Cuba,” [UN Official Criticizes the Control of Encryption of Personal Data in Cuba], MartiNoticias, June 24, 2015, http://bit.ly/1R5ZzgY
75 Ellery Roberts Biddle, Rationing the Digital: The Policy and Politics of Internet Use in Cuba Today, July 2013, Internet Monitor (The Berkman Center for Internet & Society), http://bit.ly/1LCRoID; Isbel Diaz Torres, “Wi-Fi for Cubans and Mobile E-Mail Service,” Havana Times, March 10, 2014, http://bit.ly/1G7q7b7; Yoani Sánchez, “Unos días con Nauta,” [A few day with Nauta], 14ymedio (blog), March 24, 2015, http://bit.ly/1G7q7b7
76 José Cuervo, “Resolución n˚ 179/2008 Proveedores de servicios de acceso a Internet al público,” [Resolution No. 179/2008 Providers of services of internet access to the public], Informática jurídica, February 16, 2015, http://bit.ly/1PC8Vjg.
77 Lorenzo Franseschi-Bicchiera, “The Internet in Cuba: 5 Things You Need to Know,” Mashable, April 3, 2014, http://on.mash.to/1Fmi1Rg /; Infosurgents: Tracking the Information Revolution, “Internet Filtering,” University of Michigan, http://bit.ly/1KHrM9m; “Cuba: Long live freedom (but not for the Internet)!” Reporters without Borders, November 3, 2014, https://12mars.rsf.org/2014-en/2014/03/11/cuba-long-live-freedom-but-not-for-the-internet/#more-91
80 Abel Fernández, “Detained Cuban artist who mocked Castro’s death ‘was badly beaten,’ family says,” Miami Herald, November 30, 2016 http://www.miamiherald.com/news/nation-world/world/americas/fidel-castro-en/article117981758.html
(0 = Best, 100 = Worst)
(0 = Best, 25 = Worst)
(0 = Best, 35 = Worst)
(0 = Best, 40 = Worst)