Anti-defamation and national security provisions in the constitution and criminal code are used to intimidate journalists, whether or not the reporting is true. All news media are state-owned. Dissenters should not be given freedom to speak or publish, the People's Army newspaper declared. The press can generally criticize government policies, but not the Communist Party's monopoly on power. Toward year's end, the government launched an intense crackdown on its critics. Fifteen journalists and scholars were arrested.