Spain | Freedom House

Freedom of the Press



Freedom of the Press 2003

2003 Scores

Press Status


Press Freedom Score
(0 = best, 100 = worst)


Political Environment
(0 = best, 40 = worst)


Economic Environment
(0 = best, 30 = worst)


The constitution guarantees freedom of expression and the press. The media enjoy these rights in practice; however, terrorist violence against journalists remains a lingering threat to press freedom. The Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) movement has branded many journalists "traitors" for declining to support the group's nationalist ideology. In the past two years, several media professionals have died from alleged ETA letter bombs and assassinations. In January 2002, law enforcement officials acted to prevent letter bomb attacks against leading figures at the Correo Press Group, Radio Nacional de Espana, and Antena 3 television. Despite such threats, the country continues to maintain a vibrant media environment. The majority of print and broadcast media outlets are privately owned. The public has access to more than 100 newspapers covering a wide range of perspectives.