The first Andorran constitution, ratified in 1993, provides for freedom of speech and of the press. Media outlets operate freely. The legal system provides for the right to reply in cases of slander. The media scene is shaped by the country's proximity to France and Spain, as Andorrans have access to broadcasts from both countries. There are three radio stations and two major dailies: Diari d'Andorra and El Periodic. The primary TV station is TVA,operated by Radio i Television d'Andorra. Independent media are active and express a wide variety of views, including those critical of the government.