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Notes: 

[1] I wish to thank Elliott Green, Joe Oloka-Onyango, Sylvia Tamale, Roger Tangri, and the external reviewer for their helpful suggestions on the first draft. I take responsibility for any remaining errors of fact or interpretation.

[2] "Ours Is a Fundamental Change," speech presented on January 29, 1986, in Yoweri K. Museveni, What Is Africa's Problem? (Kampala: NRM Publications, 1992), 22.

[3] Foundation for Human Rights Initiatives (FHRI), Electoral Reforms in Uganda 2008: Report for the Period of July–December 2008 (Kampala: FHRI, 2008), 34.

[4] Siri Gloppen, Emmanuel Kasimbazi, and Alexander Kibandama, "Elections in Court: The Judiciary and Uganda's 2006 Election Process," in Electoral Democracy in Uganda: Understanding Institutional Processes and Outcomes of the 2006 Multiparty Elections, ed. Julius Kiiza, Sabiti Makara, and Lise Rakner (Kampala: Fountain Publishers, 2008), 78–86.

[5] While the threshold for overturning the six elections was high, the courts did not rely on the precedent in Besigye's case, in which the abuses had to be substantial enough to call the outcome into doubt. See ibid., 85.

[6] Anne Mette Kjaer and Yasin Olum, "From Confrontation to Acquiescence? The Role of Civil Society and the Media in the 2006 Elections in Uganda," in Electoral Democracy in Uganda, 187–97.

[7] Ibid., 192, 197.

[8] Henry Odimbe Ojambe, "Reflections on Freedom of Expression in Uganda's Fledgling Democracy: Sedition, 'Pornography,' and Hate Speech," HURIPEC Working Paper 18 (Kampala: Human Rights and Peace Centre, Faculty of Law, Makerere University, February 2008), 18–19, 20, 28, http://www.huripec.mak.ac.ug/working_paper_18.pdf.

[9] Ibid., 23.

[10] Frank Nyakairu, "Govt Sets Tough Rules for Foreign Journalists," Monitor, January 14, 2006.

[11] Angelo Izama, "Deported Journalist Stranded in Nairobi," Monitor, March 11, 2006, http://www.monitor.co.ug/news/news03113.php.

[12] Angelo Izama, "Police File 53 Petitions against the Press," Monitor, March 11, 2007; Grace Natabaalo, "Human Rights Group Condemns IGG's Crack Down on Journalists," Monitor, February 4, 2008, http://www.monitor.co.ug/artman/publish/news/Human_rights_group_condemns....

[13] Richard Wanambwa, "Cabinet Approves Tough Laws against Free Media," Sunday Monitor, February 8, 2009; Mercy Nalugo, "MPs to Discuss Phone Tapping Law," Sunday Monitor, February 28, 2009,  http://www.monitor.co.ug/artman/publish/news/MPs_to_discuss_phone_tappin... Mercy Nalugo, "We Tap Private Conversations Illegally—Minister Mbabazi," Monitor, March 2, 2009, http://www.monitor.co.ug/artman/publish/news/We_tap_private_conversation....

[14] Anne Mugisa and Hillary Nsambu, "35 Convicts Escape Hanging," New Vision, April 6, 2009, http://www.newvision.co.ug/D/8/12/677204.

[15] Tabu Butagira, "New Report Pins UPDF on Human Rights Abuse," Monitor, November 17, 2008, http://www.monitor.co.ug/artman/publish/news/New_report_pins_UPDF_on_hum....

[16] FHRI, "The Human Rights Situation in Uganda: A Brief Overview," in Electoral Reforms in Uganda, 100.

[17] Human Rights Watch (HRW), Open Secret: Illegal Detention and Torture by the Joint Anti-Terrorism Task Force in Uganda (New York: HRW, April 2009), 3–5, 13–17, 35–45, http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2009/04/08/open-secret-0.

[18] Nicholas Opiyo, "We Must Criminalise Torture in Uganda's Electoral Process," Monitor, June 26, 2009, http://www.monitor.co.ug/artman/publish/opinions/We_must_criminalise_tor....

[19] FHRI, "The Human Rights Situation," in Electoral Reforms in Uganda, 98–99.

[20] Ibid., 102.

[21] Richard Egadu, "Army Executes 26 Soldiers," Monitor, February 5, 2006.

[22] FHRI, "The Human Rights Situation," in Electoral Reforms in Uganda, 94.

[23] Josephine Maseruka, "Torture Cases Drop, Says Rights Body," New Vision, April 3, 2008, http://www.newvision.co.ug/D/8/13/620346.

[24] Testimony by the Commissioner General of Prisons, Dr. Johnson Byabashaija, to the Parliamentary Legal Affairs Committee; Yasin Mugerwa, "16,000 Remanded for over Three Years," Monitor, February 3, 2009, 5.

[25] "Uganda: Land Rows Reverse Resettlement," Integrated Regional Information Networks (IRIN), March 17, 2009, http://www.irinnews.org/Report.aspx?ReportId=83511.

[26] Population Reference Bureau (PRB), Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: Data and Trends (Washington, D.C.: PRB, 2008), http://www.prb.org/pdf08/fgm-wallchart.pdf. 

[27] Rose Nakayi, "Decentralization and the Situation of Selected Ethnic and Racial Minorities: A Human Rights Audit," HURIPEC Working Paper 15 (Kampala: Human Rights and Peace Centre, Faculty of Law, Makerere University, July 2007), http://huripec.mak.ac.ug/working_paper_15.pdf.

[28] Raymond Baguma, "Anti-Gay Bill Comes to Parliament," New Vision, July 25, 2009, http://www.sundayvision.co.ug/detail.php?mainNewsCategoryId=7&newsCatego....

[29] Richard Wanambwa, "DPP Drops Mukula's Global Fund Charges," Monitor, July 22, 2009, http://www.monitor.co.ug/artman/publish/news/DPP_drops_Mukula_s_Global_F....

[30] Peter Magelah, "Corruption Will Require More Than Political Declarations," New Vision, June 25, 2009, http://www.newvision.co.ug/D/8/459/685905.

[31] Yasiin Mugerwa and Solomon Muyita, "27 New Judges Listed," Monitor, January 22, 2008, http://www.monitor.co.ug/artman/publish/news/27_new_judges_listed.shtml.

[32] Testimony by the Commissioner General of Prisons, Dr. Johnson Byabashaija, to the Parliamentary Legal Affairs Committee; Mugerwa, "16,000 Remanded for over Three Years."

[33] Felix Osike, Hillary Nsambu, and Charles Ariko, "Judges Call Off Strike," New Vision, March 10, 2007.

[34] Omar Kalinge Nnyago, "Who Will Clean up Uganda's Judiciary?" Monitor, March 14, 2008, http://www.monitor.co.ug/artman/publish/Nnyago/Who_will_clean_up_Uganda_....

[35] Heritage Foundation and the Wall Street Journal (WSJ), "Uganda," in Index of Economic Freedom 2009 (Washington, D.C./New York: Heritage Foundation and WSJ, 2009), http://www.heritage.org/Index/country/Uganda.

[36] Inspectorate of Government, Activities and Achievements of the Inspectorate of Government: Promoting Zero Tolerance Policy to Corruption (Kampala: Inspectorate of Government, June 2008).

[37] Lydia Mukisa, "Court Issues Warrant of Arrest for MP Winnie Matsiko," Monitor, December 24, 2008, http://www.monitor.co.ug/artman/publish/news/Court_issues_warrant_of_arr....

[38] Transparency International, 2008 Corruption Perceptions Index (Berlin: Transparency International, September 22, 2008), http://www.transparency.org/policy_research/surveys_indices/cpi/2008.

[39] Moses Sserwanga, "Giving with One Hand and Taking Away with Another," Monitor, August 22, 2006.

[40] Office of the Auditor General, PEFA 'LITE': Public Expenditure and Financial Accountability, Appraisal of the Financial Management, Performance on Uganda (Kampala: Office of the Auditor General, March 31, 2008), 32–33, available at http://blog-pfm.imf.org/files/pefa-lite-march-2008.pdf.

[41] Yasiin Mugerwa and Robert Mwanje, "Museveni Gives Naguru to Footballer, IUIU," Monitor, February 21, 2008, available at http://allafrica.com/stories/200802201052.html; Chris Obore, "Why I Decided to Give Away Mabira," Monitor, April 16, 2007, available at http://allafrica.com/stories/200704160077.html.

[42] Daniel Ronald Ruhweza, "Frustrated or Frustrating? The Inspector General of Government and the Question of Political Corruption in Uganda," HURIPEC Working Paper 20 (Kampala: Human Rights and Peace Centre, Faculty of Law, Makerere University, November 2008), 38, 39, http://www.huripec.mak.ac.ug/working_paper_20.pdf.