[1] The author thanks the research assistance of my students at SAIS, Jessica Lambertson and Jeffrey Phillips. Their excellent research skills and energy were invaluable to the execution of this project. The author benefitted enormously from interviews with Sergio Aguayo, José Luis Méndez and Juan Cruz Vieyra.

[2] Francisco E. González, Dual Transitions from Authoritarian Rule: Institutionalized Regimes in Chile and Mexico, 1970–2000 (Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2008).

[3] Francisco E. González, "Mexico Drug Wars Get Brutal," Current History 108, no. 715 (February/March 2009).

[4] The author thanks the editor of Countries at the Crossroads, Jake Dizard, for this timely observation.

[5] USAID, Development Statistics for Latin America and the Caribbean (Washington, D.C.: USAID, 2009), http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/PNADQ200.pdf.

[6] Mauricio Merino, "La Transición Votada. Critica a la Interpretación de Cambio Político en Mexico," Región y Sociedad 16, no. 30 (2004), http://lanic.utexas.edu/project/etext/colson/30/7resena_moch.pdf.

[7] Notimex, "Aprueba IFE Financiamiento a Partidos Políticos," Noticieros Televisa Mexico, January 28, 2008.

[8] Kenneth Emmond, "Controlling Mexico's Election Monster," Mexidata.Info, August 29, 2005, http://mexidata.info/id587.html  (accessed September 25, 2009).

[9] Manuel Carrillo and Carlos Navarro, "Mexico's New Electoral Reform and the Contribution of the Federal Electoral Institute," Elections Today, ACE Electoral Knowledge Network, 2007, http://aceproject.org/today/feature-articles/mexico-s-new-electoral-refo....

[10] Josep Colomer and Gabriel L. Negretto, "Gobernanza con Poderes Divididos en América Latina,"  Política y Gobierno 10, no. 1 (2003): 14–61, http://www.politicaygobierno.cide.edu/num_anteriores/Vol_X_N1_2003/ACOLO....

[11] Salvador Camarena, "Los Alcaldes Mexicanos, en la Línea de Fuego del Narco," País, February 26, 2009, http://www.elpais.com/articulo/internacional/alcaldes/mexicanos/linea/fu....

[12] Mauricio I. Dussuage Laguna, "Structural Differences, Common Challenges: The Civil Service Systems of Mexico and the United States in Comparative Perspective," Revista Servicio Profesional de Carrera, no. 5 (2006), available at http://mdussauge.googlepages.com/home242.

[13] Interview with Sergio Aguayo, Professor of Politics and International Relations at El Colegio de México and Commentator and Social activist, March 20, 2009.

[14] Article 19, "México: Article 19 Presenta Informe ante el Comité de Derechos Humanos de Naciones Unidas," press release, July 10, 2009, http://www.article19.org/pdfs/press/mexico-article-19-presenta-informe-a....

[15] International Freedom of Information Exchange, "Dozens of Journalists Killed for Their Work in 2008," press release, January 8, 2009, http://www.ifex.org/international/2009/01/07/dozens_of_journalists_kille....

[16] Comisión Nacional de Derechos Humanos, "Recomendación 050/2008," 2008, http://www.cndh.org.mx/recomen/2008/050.html.

[17] Diego Cevallos, "México: Amenaza de Televisoras contra Reforma Electoral," Inter Press Service (IPS), September 7, 2007, http://ipsnoticias.net/nota.asp?idnews=42103.

[18] UN Human Rights Council (UNHRC), National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15 (A) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Mexico (Geneva: UNHRC, November 10, 2008), 67, http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/publisher,UNHRC,,MEX,497dbd4b0,0.html.

[19] Human Right Watch (HRW), Uniform Impunity (New York: HRW, April 28, 2009), 2, http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/mexico0409web_0.pdf.

[20] "Mexico Beefs up 'Drug War' Forces," British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC), July 17, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8155402.stm.

[21] UNHRC, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15 (A) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1:Mexico, 6.

[22] Decreto por el que Se Expide la Ley General del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, 2009, 37, http://vlex.com.mx/vid/decreto-expide-ley-sistema-seguridad-50577270.

[23] Jo Tuckman, "At Least 20 Inmates Killed in Mexican Prison Riot," Guardian, March 5, 2009, http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/mar/05/ciudad-juarez-mexico-prison-....

[24] "Guards Held over Mexico Jailbreak," BBC, May 18, 2009, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/8055318.stm.

[25] Amnesty International, "Mexico," in Annual Report 2009 (London: Amnesty International, 2009), http://www.amnesty.org/en/region/mexico/report-2009.

[26] Liliana Alcántara, "ONU: Activistas Trabajan bajo Riesgo e Indefensión," Universal, October 13, 2009, http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/171892.html.

[27] UNHRC, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, in Accordance with Paragraph 15 (C) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Mexico (Geneva: UNHRC, December 19, 2008), 7, available at http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,UNHRC,,MEX,4562d94e2,49465a100,0.....

[28] Ibid., 5.

[29] González, "Mexico Drug Wars Get Brutal."

[30] "Mexico under Siege: Interactive Map," Los Angeles Times,  http://projects.latimes.com/mexico-drug-war/#/interactive-map.

[31] Traci Carl, "7 Killed in Mexico Independence Day Grenade Attack," CBS News, September 16, 2008, http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2008/09/16/world/main4454035.shtml.

[32] James C. McKinley Jr., "Gunmen Kill Chief of Mexico's Police," New York Times, May 9, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/05/09/world/americas/09mexico.html?fta=y.

[33] William Booth, "Warrior in Drug Fight Soon Becomes a Victim," Washington Post, February 9, 2009, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/02/08/AR200902....

[34] UNHRC, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15 (A) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Mexico, 15–16.

[35]Amnesty International, Mexico: Injustice and Impunity: Mexico's Flawed Criminal Justice System (London: Amnesty International, 2009), http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?lang=e&id=ENGAMR410012007.

[36] HRW, Report on Mexico's National Human Rights Commission: A Critical Assessment (New York: HRW, February 12, 2008), http://www.hrw.org/en/reports/2008/02/12/mexico-s-national-human-rights-....

[37] Francisco Reséndiz, "Resaltan Inequidad de Género en Política, Universal, September 17, 2007, http://www.el-universal.com.mx/nacion/154302.html.

[38] Committee on the Elimination of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), List of Issues and Questions for Consideration of Periodic Reports (New York: CEDAW, February 22, 2006), 1, http://www.unhchr.ch/tbs/doc.nsf/898586b1dc7b4043c1256a450044f331/f3c477...$FILE/N0625055.pdf.

[39] Amnesty International, "Mexico: Killings and Abductions of Women in Ciudad Juarez and the City of Chihuahua—the Struggle for Justice Goes On," press release, February 20, 2006, http://www.amnestyusa.org/document.php?id=ENGAMR410122006&lang=e.

[40] UNHRC, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15 (A) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Mexico, 14.

[41] Ibid, 15.

[42] UNHRC, Compilation Prepared by the Office of the High Comissioner for Human Rights, in Accordance with Paragraph 15 (B) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Mexico (Geneva: UNHRC, February 2009), 5, http://lib.ohchr.org/HRBodies/UPR/Documents/Session4/MX/A_HRC_WG6_4_MEX_....

[43] UNHRC, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15 (A) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Mexico, 16.

[44] Rodolfo Stavenhagen, "Persiste Pobreza, Discriminación y Marginación Social y Política en los Pueblos Indígenas," Boletin Academica Mexicana de Ciencias 77, no. 8 (August 7, 2008), http://www.comunicacion.amc.edu.mx/comunicados/persiste-pobreza-discrimi....

[45] UNHRC, National Report Submitted in Accordance with Paragraph 15 (A) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Mexico, 17.

[46] Ibid., 17.

[47] Committee on Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights, Consideration of Reports Submitted by States under Articles 16 and 17 of the Covenant; Mexico (Geneva: United Nations Economic and Social Council, June 2006), 3, http://www2.ohchr.org/english/bodies/cescr/docs/E.C.12.MEX.CO.4.pdf.

[48] "España Exige a México Que Acabe con la Persecución Religiosa," Imparcial, August 8, 2008, http://www.elimparcial.es/contenido/20042.html.

[49] "Lawmakers Vow to Revise Mexico's Constitution to Strengthen Separation of Church and State," International Herald Tribune,  November 21, 2007, available at http://eubusinesslaw.wordpress.com/2007/11/21/mexic-ganduri-pentru-laici....

[50] Benjamin Davis, Workers' Freedom of Association under Attack in Mexico (Washington, D.C.: Solidarity Center, August 2008), http://www.solidaritycenter.org/files/pubs_policybrief_mexico.pdf.

[51] International Trade Union Confederation (ITUC), "Mexico," in 2009 Annual Survey of Violations of Trade Union Rights (Brussels: ITUC, 2009), http://survey09.ituc-csi.org/survey.php?IDContinent=2&IDCountry=MEX&Lang=EN.

[52] UNHRC, Summary Prepared by the Office of the High Comissioner for Human Rights in Accordance with Paragraph 15 (C) of the Annex to Human Rights Council Resolution 5/1: Mexico, 7.

[53] Noemí Gutiérrez, "Mujeres de Atenco, a la Espera de Justicia,"  Universal, May 11, 2009, http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/168001.html.

[54] Miguel Sarre, "Mexico's Judicial Reform and Long-Term Challenges" (paper presented at the Policy Forum: U.S.-Mexico Security Cooperation and Merida Initiative, Washington, D.C., May 9, 2008), http://www.wilsoncenter.org/news/docs/Sarre%20presentation.pdf.

[55] Ken Ellingwood, "Corruption Hurting Mexico's Fight against Crime, Calderon Says," Los Angeles Times, December 10, 2008, http://www.latimes.com/news/nationworld/world/latinamerica/la-fg-mexico1....

[56] Sarah Schats, Hugo Concha and Laura Magaloni Kerpel, "The Mexican Judicial System: Continuity and Change in a Period of Democratic Consolidation," in Reforming the Administration of Justice in Mexico, ed. Wayne A. Cornelius and David A. Shirk (South Bend, Ind.: University of Notre Dame Press, 2007), 202.

[57] Jeffrey K. Staton, "Lobbying for Judicial Reform: The Role of the Mexican Supreme Court in Institutional Selection," in Reforming the Administration of Justice in Mexico, 288–90.

[58] Sam Dillon, "Mexico Court Makes History by Siding with Congress," New York Times, August 25, 2000, http://www.nytimes.com/2000/08/25/world/mexico-court-makes-history-by-si....

[59] "Anulan Corazón de Ley Televisa," BBC Mundo Online, June 6, 2007, .http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/spanish/latin_america/newsid_6726000/6726335.stm

[60] James C. McKinley Jr., "Mexican Court Finds No Violation of Rights in Jailing of Journalist," New York Times, November 29, 2007, http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/30/world/americas/30mexico.html.

[61] Latinobarometro, 2008 Survey of Public Opinion (Santiago de Chile: Latinobarometro, November 2008), http://www.latinobarometro.org/docs/INFORME_LATINOBAROMETRO_2008.pdf.

[62] Marc Lacey. "Warrantless Searches Removed from Legislation in Mexico," New York Times, December 7, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/02/27/world/americas/27iht-27mexico.10456324....

[63] Miguel Schor, "An Essay on the Emergence of Constitutional Courts: The Cases of Mexico and Colombia," Indiana Journal of Global Legal Studies 16, no. 1 (2008): 173–94, http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=1134183.

[64] Ibid.

[65] Schats, Concha, and Magaloni Kerpel, "Mexican Judicial System," 209.

[66] James C. McKinley Jr., "Mexico's Congress Passes Overhaul of Justice Law," New York Times, March 7, 2008, http://www.nytimes.com/2008/03/07/world/americas/07mexico.html.

[67] Schats, Concha, and Magaloni Kerpel, "Mexican Judicial System," 204.

[68] Ana Laura Magaloni, "Context and Positive Implications of the Mexican Judicial Reform" (paper presented to the Challenge of Reforming Mexico Justice System Seminar at the Woodrow Wilson Center's Mexico Institute, Washington, D.C., May 4, 2007), http://www.wilsoncenter.org/events/docs/ponencia%20washington-%20ana%20m....

[69] Layda Negrete and Roberto Hernandez, "'I Don't Remember': Police Accountability and Due Process in Mexico City Criminal Courts" (paper presented at the Challenge of Reforming Mexico's Justice System Seminar at the Woodrow Wilson Center's Mexico Institute, Washington D.C., May 4, 2007), http://www.wilsoncenter.org/events/docs/Layda%20Negrete.pdf.

[70] Schats, Concha and Magaloni Kerpel, "Mexican Judicial System," 212.

[71] Ibid.

[72] Liliana Alcántara,  "CNDH Ve Impunidad en 99% de Delitos," Universal,  December 15, 2008, http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/164447.html.

[73] Joel Millman and Jose de Cordoba, "Drug-Cartel Links Haunt an Election South of the Border," Wall Street Journal, July 3, 2009, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124657442789989017.html.

[74] Sara Miller Llana, "Setbacks in Mexico's War on Corruption," Christian Science Monitor, December 30, 2008, http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/1230/p06s02-woam.html.

[75] Latinobarometro, 2008 Survey of Public Opinion.

[76] HRW, Uniform Impunity: Mexico's Misuse of Military Justice to Prosecute Abuses in Counternarcotics and Public Security Operation (New York: HRW, April 29, 2009), http://www.hrw.org/sites/default/files/reports/mexico0409web_0.pdf.

[77] "Is Mexico under Attack by Its Military?" Los Angeles Times, July 24, 2009, www.articles.latimes.com/2009/jul/24/opinion/ed-mexico24.

[78] Sarah Miller Llana, "Military Abuses Rise in Mexican Drug War," Christian Science Monitor, June 24, 2008, http://www.csmonitor.com/2008/0624/p06s01-woam.html.

[79] Ellingwood, "Corruption Hurting Mexico's Fight against Crime, Calderon Says."

[80] Steve Fainaru and William Booth, "An Army Takeover Quells Violence in Mexico," Washington Post, April 21, 2009, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2009/04/20/AR200904....

[81] Manuel Roig-Franzia "Mexico Plan Adds Police to Take on Drug Cartels," Washington Post, July 11, 2008, http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/07/10/AR200807....

[82] Constitution of Mexico, Art. 27.

[83] David Yetman and Alberto Burquez, "Twenty-Seven: A Case Study in Ejido Privatization in Mexico," Journal of Anthropological Research 54, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 73–95, http://www.jstor.org/pss/3631677.

[84] Xavier Sala-i-Martin and Jennifer Blanke, Global Competitiveness Report 2009–2010 (Geneva: World Economic Forum, 2009), http://gcr.weforum.org/gcr09/.

[85] Jose Luis Mendez, "Implementing Developed Countries' Administrative Reforms in Developing Countries: The Case of Mexico," in Public Change and Reform: Moving Forward, Looking Back, ed. Jon Pierre and Patricia Ingraham (Montreal: McGill University Press, forthcoming, 2009).

[86] Secretaria de la Función Pública, "Concluyó la Convocatoria Ciudadana para  Identificar el Tramite Más Inutil," Campanas 2008, http://portal.funcionpublica.gob.mx:8080/wb3/wb/SFP/el_tramite_mas_inutil.

[87] Interview with José Luis Méndez, Professor of Public Administration and Public Policy at El Colegio de México, March 23, 2009.

[88] Denise Dresser, "Testimony: Law Enforcement Responses to Mexican Drug Cartels," Senate Judiciary Committee Subcommittee on Crime and Drugs Hearing, March 2009, http://judiciary.senate.gov/hearings/hearing.cfm?id=3718.

[89] Marcela Armienta, "Atoran Monopolios a México: Denise Dresser," Frontera.info, March 3, 2009, http://www.frontera.info/EdicionImpresa/Suscripciones3/EdImpresaNotas.as... (accessed October 1, 2009).

[90] Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), Follow-Up Report on the Implementation of the Phase 2 Recommendations (Paris: OECD, 2007),  3, http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/39/39/38376307.pdf.

[91]Programa Nacional de Rendición de Cuentas, Transparencia y Combate a la Corrupción 2008–2012,  "La Ciudadanía Participa y Confía en la Función Pública," in Programa Anticorrupción 2008 (Mexico City: Government of Mexico, 2008), 13, http://www.programaanticorrupcion.gob.mx/prctcc_2008-2012.pdf.

[92] Ibid., 19.

[93] OECD, Follow-Up Report on the Implementation of the Phase 2 Recommendations, 3.

[94] Edgardo Buscaglia, "Judicial Corruption and the Broader Justice System," in Corruption and Judicial Systems (Berlin: Transparency International, 2007), www.transparency.org/content/download/18705/255311/%20.

[95] Daniel Kaufmann, "Mexico Creates Model for Tackling Corruption in Tax Administration," World Bank Governance Matters Blog, June 13, 2008, http://governanceblog.worldbank.org/mexico-creates-model-tackling-corrup... (accessedApril 6, 2009).

[96] Colleen W. Cook, "Mexico's Drug Cartels," Congressional Research Service, October 16, 2007, http://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RL34215.pdf.

[97] See Constitution of Mexico, Art. 6; Ley Federal de Transparencia y Acceso a la Información Pública Gubernamental, 2002.

[98] Open Society Justice Initiative, Transparency & Silence: A Survey of Access to Information Laws and Practices in 14 Countries (New York: Open Society Justice Initiative, 2006), http://www.soros.org/initiatives/justice/focus/foi/articles_publications....

[99] Fundar, Indice Latinoamericano de Transparencia Presupuestaria 2009 (Mexico City: Fundar, 2009), http://www.iltpweb.org / (accessed September 10, 2009).

[100] Open Budget Initiative, "Mexico," in Open Budget Index 2008 (Washington, D.C.: Open Budget Initiative, 2008), http://openbudgetindex.org/files/cs_mexico.pdf.

[101] Ley Federal de Transparencia y Acceso a la Información Pública Gubernamental, Art. 7,  VIII-VVII, http://www.ifai.org.mx/transparencia/LFTAIPG.pdf.

[102] Fundar, "Tras los Pasos de Nuestros Pesos," Pesos y Contra Pesos 2, no. 2 (February 2008), http://www.fundar.org.mx/index.html.

[103] Ley de Adquisiciones, Arrendamientos y Servicios del Sector Público, Arts. 65-70, http://www.diputados.gob.mx/LeyesBiblio/pdf/14.pdf.

[104] Inter-American Development Bank, "IDB Accepts Compranet for Operations Financed in Mexico," news release, February 8, 2006, http://www.iadb.org/news/detail.cfm?language=EN&id=2767.

[105] Secretaria de Relaciones Exteriores, "Acerca del Centro de Información SER-ONU," home page, http://dgctc.sre.gob.mx/ci/html/acerca/acerca.html.