Freedom in the World 2017

Survey Team

Analysts

Aalaa Abuzaakouk is a Middle East and North Africa analyst who works on Libya and Tunisia programs at the National Endowment for Democracy. Previously, she was a program officer with Freedom House’s Middle East and North Africa team. She has contributed to Freedom in the World, Freedom of the Press, and Voices in the Street, Freedom House’s special publication on social protests and freedom of assembly. She graduated from Georgetown University with a bachelor’s degree in regional studies and a master’s degree in Arab Studies. She served as a Middle East and North Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

David Angeles is a program officer for Southeast Asia at the National Endowment for Democracy, a private, nonprofit foundation dedicated to the growth and strengthening of democratic institutions around the world. Previously, he worked in Thailand and Burma/Myanmar with various civil society and human rights groups. He received a master’s degree in international affairs from the American University of Paris and a bachelor’s degree in international studies from the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, where he was named a Truman Scholar. He served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Ignacio Arana Araya is a postdoctoral researcher at the Pontifical Catholic University of Chile and the editor of Panoramas, the scholarly platform of the Center for Latin American Studies at the University of Pittsburgh. His central line of research explores how the individual differences among presidents have an impact on relevant political phenomena, including institutional change and policy outcomes. His secondary line of research is the comparative study of institutions, with a focus on Latin America. His research has been published or is forthcoming in the Journal of Law and Courts, the Journal of Legislative Studies, Latin American Politics and Society, Latin American Perspectives, the Global Encyclopedia of Public Administration, Bolivian Studies Journal and Política. He served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Mokhtar Awad is a research fellow in the Program on Extremism at George Washington University’s Center for Cyber and Homeland Security. He specializes in Islamist and Salafist groups in the Middle East. He has published analyses and conducted field research on Islamist groups and political dynamics in Tunisia, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, and Egypt. Prior to joining the Program on Extremism, Awad worked as a research associate at the Center for American Progress, and before that he was a junior fellow in the Middle East Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Awad’s work has been published in Foreign Policy, the Washington Post, Current Trends in Islamist Ideology, and by the Carnegie Middle East Center, among other places. He served as a Middle East and North Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Oumar Ba is a PhD candidate in political science at the University of Florida and an assistant professor at Morehouse College, starting August 2017. He earned MA degrees in political science and African studies from Ohio University and the University of Florida, where he is affiliated with the Sahel Research Group. Oumar is also a contributing editor to the online magazine Africa Is A Country. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Angelita Baeyens  is a programs director at Robert F. Kennedy Human Rights. She previously served at the United Nations as a political affairs officer in the Americas division of the UN Department of Political Affairs in New York, covering the Caribbean region. Baeyens also worked at the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights (IACHR) in Washington, D.C. in various capacities, including special assistant to the executive secretary and coordinator of the Rapporteurship on Human Rights Defenders of the IACHR. Ms. Baeyens has been an adjunct professor of law at Georgetown University Law Center since 2012. A dual Belgian and Colombian citizen, she holds a law degree from the University of Ibague, in Colombia, and an LLM in international human rights law from the University of Notre Dame. She served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Cynthia Barrow-Giles is a senior lecturer in political science at the University of the West Indies at Cave Hill, Barbados, who served as deputy dean in the Faculty of Social Sciences and head of the Department of Government, Sociology, and Social Work. She has published books on issues of Caribbean sovereignty and development, women in Caribbean politics, and general elections and voting in the English-speaking Caribbean. She was a member of the St. Lucia constitutional reform commission, and has participated in a number of observation missions for the Organization of American States and the Commonwealth. She served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Katherine Blue Carroll is an assistant professor and the director of the program in public policy studies at Vanderbilt University. She received her master’s degree and PhD in politics from the University of Virginia. Her teaching and research interests include the comparative politics of the Middle East, political violence, and the U.S. military. Her work has appeared in Middle East Policy and the Middle East Journal. She served as a Middle East and North Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Mamadou Bodian holds a PhD in political science from the University of Florida. He is also the project coordinator for the Trans-Saharan Elections Project and a founding member of the Sahel Research Group. He has also been a senior researcher with the Islam Research Programme at the Embassy of the Netherlands in Senegal, a project sponsored by Leiden University and the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs. His current research focuses on a comparative examination of elections and democracy in the Sahel, with special attention to Senegal, Mali, and Niger. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Alex Brockwehl is an MPA student at the Woodrow Wilson School of Public and International Affairs at Princeton University. Previously, he managed Freedom House projects in Latin America, which aim to support local civil society leaders and organizations in defending human rights. Alex writes frequently for the Freedom House blog, Freedom at Issue, and has been interviewed by various media outlets on regional human rights challenges and U.S. foreign policy. In 2013 he contributed to Voices in the Streets, a Freedom House special report on freedom of assembly rights and police responses to massive social protests. Prior to joining Freedom House, Alex worked as a fellow at the Yanapuma Foundation in Estero de Plátano, Ecuador, where he managed projects focused on secondary education, community development, and women’s empowerment. He holds a bachelor of arts degree from Union College. He served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Greg Brown is an adjunct professor at Georgetown University’s Center for Australian, New Zealand, and Pacific Studies, and a senior analyst at CENTRA Technology, Inc., where he focuses on transnational and emerging national security issues. He has served as a consultant for the German Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) foundation, as an editor for the Millennium Project’s Global Challenges Program, and as an Australian National University Parliamentary Fellow. Brown’s academic work in political demography, comparative migration policy, and diaspora politics has been highlighted in the Economist, the Australian, and the New Zealand Herald, and has been published in the Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, Political Science, and Australia’s journal of demography, People and Place. He served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Nina Burbach is a former senior adviser to the Slovenian Ministry of Justice on international human rights issues. She holds a master’s degree in international humanitarian law and human rights from the University of Geneva and a bachelor’s degree in international law from the University of Ljubljana. She served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Samlanchith Chanthavong is the senior program officer for Asia and global programs at the National Endowment for Democracy, where she manages grants to civil society organizations working to strengthen human rights, civic and political participation, and democratic governance. Previously, she worked on rule of law programs in Asia at the American Bar Association. She received a master’s degree in international affairs from American University. She served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Douglas Coltart is a Zimbabwean human rights lawyer and consultant with experience working on democratic governance and elections in sub-Saharan Africa. He co-wrote a book on socio-economic rights in Zimbabwe’s constitution, and has served as a peer reviewer for one of southern Africa’s leading journals. A recipient of a Konrad-Adenauer-Stiftung scholarship, he holds a law degree from the University of Cape Town and a bachelor’s degree in southern African history from the same institution. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Julian Dierkes is an associate professor and the Keidanren Chair in Japanese Research at the University of British Columbia’s Institute of Asian Research, where he coordinates the Program on Inner Asia. His research has focused on history education and supplementary education in Japan, as well as contemporary Mongolia. He is the editor of Change in Democratic Mongolia: Social Relations, Health, Mobile Pastoralism, and Mining. He received a PhD in sociology from Princeton University. He served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Jake Dizard is a PhD candidate in political science at the University of Texas at Austin. He was previously the managing editor of Countries at the Crossroads, Freedom House’s annual survey of democratic governance. His area of focus is Latin America, with a specific emphasis on the Andean region and Mexico. He received a master’s degree from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. He served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Richard Downie is deputy director and a fellow of the Africa Program at the Center for Strategic and International Studies. Previously, he was a journalist for the British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC). He received a master’s degree in international public policy from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Maxim Edwards is a journalist and commissioning editor at oDR, openDemocracy’s section on Russia and the post-Soviet world. He has a particular interest in the politics and societies of post-socialist Europe and Eurasia, with a focus on the South Caucasus. Max recently graduated from the University of Glasgow with an MA in Russian, Central, and Eastern European studies. He also worked as a research fellow with ECMI-Caucasus and CRRC-Armenia, investigating ethnic minorities and inter-ethnic relations in Armenia and Georgia. His work has appeared in places including openDemocracy, Political Critique, Al-Jazeera, Al-Monitor, New Eastern Europe, and the Forward, and he is now working on a series of essays about memory and European responses to the refugee crisis. He served as a Eurasia analyst for Freedom in the World.

Daniel Eizenga is a PhD candidate in the Department of Political Science and a research associate with the Sahel Research Group at the University of Florida. His area of focus is sub-Saharan Africa, specifically the Francophone African Sahel where he has conducted extensive research. He received a master’s degree in political science from the University of Florida in 2013. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Brian Ernst is a senior program officer at the National Democratic Institute (NDI), focusing on improving governance in southern and eastern Africa. Brian previously served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Madagascar, and covers the Indian Ocean island nations for NDI. He received a master’s degree in international security from the University of Denver and bachelor’s degree in political science from Vanderbilt University. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Golnaz Esfandiari is a senior correspondent with Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Esfandiari’s work focuses on political and social developments in Iran, and ties between Iran and the United States. Her work has appeared in and has been cited by publications including the New Yorker, the New York Times, the Washington Post, and Foreign Policy; she has also contributed to Freedom House’s Freedom of the Press report. She served as a Middle East and North Africa analyst for Freedom in the World

Annabella España-Nájera is an assistant professor of Chicano and Latin American Studies at California State University, Fresno. Her research interests include democratic institutions and democratization, representation, and parties and party systems in Latin America, with a special focus on Central America. She served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Sarah J. Feuer, an expert on politics and religion in North Africa, is a Soref Fellow at the Washington Institute for Near East Policy. Feuer, who completed her doctorate in politics at Brandeis University’s Crown Center for Middle East Studies in 2014, wrote her dissertation on the politics of religious education in Morocco and Tunisia. A book based on that research is due out with Cambridge University Press in 2017. Previously, she earned her MA in Middle Eastern history from Tel Aviv University and a BA in history and French literature at the University of Pennsylvania. She has extensive experience in the region, including stints living in Israel, Jordan, Morocco, and Tunisia. She served as a Middle East and North Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Jon Fraenkel is a professor of comparative politics in the School of History, Philosophy, Political Science and International Relations at Victoria University of Wellington, New Zealand. He was formerly a senior research fellow based at the Australian National University and the University of the South Pacific in Fiji. He is the Pacific correspondent for the Economist. His research focuses the politics of the Pacific Islands region, institutional design in divided societies, electoral systems, political economy, and the economic history of Oceania. He served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Corinna-Barbara Francis is an independent consultant who works on project development, monitoring and evaluation, and capacity-building in support of Chinese NGOs and civil society activists. She is also a visiting research fellow at King’s College London. Previously, she was a China researcher at Amnesty International headquarters in London, for ten years. She formerly held research and teaching positions at Brown University, the University of Michigan, and the University of Missouri and has been the recipient of numerous research grants, including a Fulbright-Hays research fellowship. She has published widely in academic journals on China’s emerging civil society, student politics, and property rights, including in Comparative Politics, the China Quarterly, and China Review International, and has contributed to numerous co-authored books on China. She earned her PhD in Political Science from Columbia University and her BA from Yale University.  She served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Julie George is an associate professor of political science at Queens College and the City University of New York Graduate Center. Her work addresses the intersection of state-building, democratization, and ethnic politics in postcommunist states. She is the author of The Politics of Ethnic Separatism in Russia and Georgia. Her work has appeared in Electoral Studies, Post-Soviet Affairs, and Europe-Asia Studies and other outlets. She served as a Eurasia analyst for Freedom in the World.

Ana Pastor Gonzalez holds a journalism degree from the University of Navarra, in Spain, and has worked as a local and cultural journalist for different media companies. In 2015, she completed a master’s degree in international relations from New York University. She served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Alyssa Maraj Grahame is a PhD candidate in the Department of Political Science at the University of Massachusetts, Amherst.  Her research focuses on the political economy of the 2008 financial crisis in Europe. Her work has been presented at conferences including American Political Science Association, Council for European Studies, and Western Political Science Association. She is presently completing a dissertation project titled “Democracy in Crisis: Social Mobilization against Financial Capital,” which will be the basis for her first book. She served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Shelby Grossman is a postdoctoral fellow at Stanford University’s Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. Her research focuses on the political economy of development. Her book project investigates the conditions under which private organizations will promote economic activity, focusing on informal markets in Lagos, Nigeria. She served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Liutauras Gudžinskas lectures on comparative politics at the Institute of International Relations and Political Science of Vilnius University. His main research interests are postcommunist transformation, Europeanization, and politics of the Baltic countries. Since 2013, Gudžinskas is also the editor-in-chief of the Baltic Journal of Political Science, and the president of Lithuanian Political Science Association. In 2015, he was elected as General Secretary of Central European Political Science Association. He served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Ted Henken is an associate professor in the Department of Sociology and Anthropology at Baruch College, City University of New York. He holds a joint appointment in Baruch’s Black and Latino Studies department. He is president ex-officio of the Association for the Study of the Cuban Economy. He is the coauthor with Archibald Ritter of Entrepreneurial Cuba: The Changing Policy Landscape, coeditor with Miriam Celaya and Dimas Castellanos of Cuba in Focus, and author of Cuba: A Global Studies Handbook. He has published articles about Cuba in the journals Human Geography, Current HistoryNueva Sociedad, Cuban Studies, Latino Studies, and Latin American Research Review, as well as in the New York Times and the blog of the Committee to Protect Journalists. He writes about contemporary Cuba on his blog, El Yuma. He received a PhD in Latin American studies from Tulane University in 2002. He has served as a consultant on Cuba for the Department of State and the White House and was an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Franklin Hess is the coordinator of the Modern Greek Program at Indiana University and a senior lecturer at the Institute for European Studies. His scholarly work explores the economic, geopolitical, and geocultural contexts of modern Greece’s cultural production. His other research interests include immigration and the cinematic representation of violence. He received a PhD in American studies from the University of Iowa, focusing on the influence of American television programming on Greek culture. He served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Ibrahim Yahaya Ibrahim is a PhD candidate in political science at the University of Florida, where he is also a research associate with the Sahel Research Group. His dissertation focuses on political contestations and religious discourse in the Sahel, with a particularly emphasis on cases from Mali, Mauritania, and Niger. Ibrahim was a Fulbright grantee at the University of Florida from 2011 to 2013. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Rico Isaacs is a reader in politics at Oxford Brookes University. His research interests lay at the intersection of nation-building, democratization, and institutional development in post-Soviet states. He is the author of Party System Formation in Kazakhstan: Between Formal and Informal Politics (Routledge 2011) and has published on Central Asian politics in Democratization, Europe-Asia Studies, Nationalities Papers, Contemporary Politics, and Electoral Studies among many other scholarly journals. He is the co-editor of Nation-Building and Identity in the Post-Soviet Space: New tools and approaches (Routledge 2016) and has a further two books forthcoming: Film and Identity in Kazakhstan: Soviet and post-Soviet Culture (I.B. Tauris 2017) and Politics: an Introduction 3rd Edition (Routledge 2017). He served as a Eurasia analyst for Freedom in the World.

Faysal Itani is a resident senior fellow with the Atlantic Council’s Rafik Hariri Center for the Middle East, where he focuses primarily on the Syrian conflict and its regional impact. Itani has repeatedly briefed the U.S. government and its allies on the conflict in Syria and its effects on their interests. He has been widely published and quoted in prominent media outlets including the New York Times, TIME, Politico, and the Washington Post, among other places. Itani holds a master’s degree in strategic studies and international economics from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, a certificate in public policy from Georgetown University, and a bachelor’s degree in business from the American University of Beirut. He served as a Middle East and North Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Victoria Jennett is an independent consultant specializing in justice sector reform, anticorruption, and the promotion of human rights. She has worked previously as a human rights advisor, as the chief of property in the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe Mission in Kosovo, and as a research analyst for Transparency International. She received her PhD in constitutional law and conflict transformation from the European University Institute in Florence, Italy, and is a British qualified lawyer who gained her bachelor of laws from King’s College, London. She served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Cara Jones received her PhD in political science and African studies from the University of Florida in 2013. She has published numerous articles on development and post-conflict politics in Africa in academic, policy, and popular media. Now a development professional, she was an academic teacher-scholar for five years previously, in addition to a decade of work in the field. She served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Toby Craig Jones is an associate professor of history and the director of the Center for Middle Eastern Studies at Rutgers University, New Brunswick. He is the author of Desert Kingdom: How Oil and Water Forged Modern Saudi Arabia and of Running Dry: Essays on Energy and Environmental Crisis, and is currently writing a book entitled America’s Oil Wars. He is an editor of Middle East Report and has published widely, including in the International Journal of Middle East Studies, the New York Times, and Foreign Affairs. He received a PhD from Stanford University. He served as a Middle East and North Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Karin Deutsch Karlekar is the director of Free Expression at Risk Programs at PEN America. Prior to joining PEN, she served as director of Freedom House’s Freedom of the Press project. As well as acting as an expert spokesperson on press freedom issues, she has developed index methodologies and conducted training sessions on press freedom, internet freedom, freedom of expression, and monitoring of dangerous speech; authored a number of special reports and academic papers; and conducted research, assessment, and advocacy missions to Nigeria, South Africa, Uganda, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Afghanistan, Indonesia, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka. She has also worked as an editor at the Economist Intelligence Unit and as a consultant to Human Rights Watch, and is currently a member of the governing council of the International Freedom of Expression Exchange (IFEX) network. She holds a PhD in Indian history from Cambridge University and a bachelor’s degree from Vassar College. She served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Valery Kavaleuski holds a master’s degree in foreign service from Georgetown University. As a former diplomat, he specialized in Belarus-U.S. political relations, as well as human rights and human trafficking issues with the UN agencies. He served as a Eurasia analyst for Freedom in the World.

Catherine Kelly has a PhD in government from Harvard University and is a Mellon/American Council of Learned Societies Public Fellow at the American Bar Association-Rule of Law Initiative in Washington, D.C. Substantively, she specializes in democracy, rule of law, and governance, and in program design, monitoring, and evaluation. Fluent in French and proficient in Wolof, she has done several years of field research. A former Fulbright Scholar and Foreign Language and Area Studies fellow, her work has appeared in the Journal of Democracy and Electoral Studies, and on the blogs of the Washington Post, the Council on Foreign Relations, and Social Science Research Council. She served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World. The views expressed in the report are her personal views and not those of ABA ROLI.

Nicholas Kerr is an assistant professor of comparative politics in the Department of Political Science at the University of Alabama. His general research and teaching interests include African politics, democratization, electoral institutions, electoral integrity, and political corruption. In a current research project Nicholas explores the design and performance of electoral management bodies (EMBs) in Africa with emphasis on how political elites and citizens respond strategically to the autonomy and capacity of EMBs. Another research project examines the process through which citizens formulate their perceptions of election integrity. Specifically, he looks at how direct experiences with election management, electoral manipulation, and third-party actors influence citizens’ attitudes toward election integrity. Nicholas has experience conducting qualitative fieldwork and organizing surveys in several African countries and his published work has appeared in Electoral Studies, Governance, the Journal of Modern African Studies, and Political Research Quarterly. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Sylvana Habdank-Kołaczkowska is a political analyst and researcher specializing in postcommunist Europe. She has previously served as the director of Nations in Transit, Freedom House’s annual report on democratic governance from Central Europe to Eurasia, and as the managing editor of the Journal of Cold War Studies, a peer-reviewed quarterly. She received a master’s degree in Eastern European and Eurasian studies from Harvard University and a bachelor’s in political science from the University of California, Berkeley. She writes reports on Central Europe for Freedom of the Press and served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Niklas Kossow is a PhD candidate and communications officer at the European Research Centre for Anti-Corruption and State-Building in Berlin, focusing on the use of new media tools in anticorruption movements. He holds a bachelor’s degree in European social and political studies from University College London, and a master’s degree in public policy from the Hertie School of Governance. He previously worked as a volunteer fellow for Freedom House, an advisor for Transparency International, and a consultant for the UN Development Program and the World Wide Web Foundation. He served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Paul Kubicek is a professor of political science and director of the International Studies Program at Oakland University. He is the author of numerous works on the European Union, democratization, and postcommunist and Turkish politics, which have appeared in journals including Comparative Politics, Political Studies, and Political Science Quarterly. His most recent book is Political Islam and Democracy in the Muslim World. He is the editor of Turkish Studies. He has taught in Ukraine, Turkey, and Austria, and was a Fulbright Scholar in Slovenia. He received a PhD in political science from the University of Michigan. He served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Joshua Kurlantzick is a senior fellow for Southeast Asia at the Council on Foreign Relations. Previously, he was a scholar at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace, where he focused on Southeast Asian politics and economics and China’s relations with Southeast Asia. He is a longtime journalist whose articles have appeared in Time, the New Republic, the Atlantic Monthly, Foreign Affairs, and the New Yorker, among others. He is the author of the recently released book State Capitalism: How the Return of Statism is Transforming the World. He served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Freja Landewall is a research associate with the Governance Group in Norway, and has broad experience from conducting analysis in both the private and public sectors. She holds a master’s degree in democracy building and a bachelor’s degree in political science, with a specialization in international and comparative politics. She served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Astrid Larson is Director of Programs and Events at American Friends of the Louvre. She received a master’s degree in international media and culture from the New School University. She has served as an analyst for Western Europe, sub-Saharan Africa, and the South Pacific for Freedom House’s Freedom of the Press report. She served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Joey Lee is the Asia Law and Justice Program director at the Leitner Center for International Law and Justice at Fordham Law School, where he leads research, advocacy, and capacity-building efforts to support strengthening of rule of law in Asia. He earned a juris doctor degree from Boston University and a master of laws degree from New York University. He served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Kelsey Lilley is associate director of the Atlantic Council’s Africa Center, where she closely follows political, security, and economic developments on the continent. Kelsey was a Princeton in Africa Fellow with the International Rescue Committee, and she previously worked at the Africa Center for Strategic Studies at the National Defense University. She holds a bachelor’s degree in political science from Davidson College. She served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Lone Lindholt holds a graduate degree in law and a PhD degree in international human rights law from the University of Copenhagen. She held for many years a position as senior analyst with the Danish Institute for Human Rights, and has authored and edited numerous publications in the field; undertaken teaching and lecturing in various human rights fields; and served as an expert in numerous development programs for the Institute in Africa, Asia and the Middle East. In addition to serving an external examiner at several Danish universities, she is now an independent consultant and CEO of Lindholt Consult, as well as an internationally ICI-certified coach, specializing in human rights-related projects and program development and implementation, undertaking assignments in the field, and facilitating partner-driven processes relating to institutional and organizational development. She served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Shahirah Mahmood recently received her doctorate in political science from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. Her work on Islam, democracy, and women’s rights in Malaysia and Indonesia has been published in peer-reviewed journal articles, encyclopedia entries, and newspaper editorials. Her research expertise focuses on civil society activism, economic development, gender and politics, and Islam and politics. Shahirah was formerly a research analyst in Singapore at the Rajaratnam School of International Studies (Contemporary Islam Program) and covered the 2008 Malaysian general elections. She served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Philip Martin is a PhD Candidate in the Department of Political Science and the Security Studies Program at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. His dissertation research examines the organization of armed movements and state formation in sub-Saharan Africa. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Aurelien Mondon is a senior lecturer in French and comparative politics at the University of Bath. His research focuses predominantly on elite discourse analysis and the mainstreaming of far right politics, particularly through the use of populism and racism. His recent projects include work on Islamophobia and abstention. His first monograph A Populist Hegemony?:The mainstreaming of the extreme right in France and Australia was published in 2013. He is a regular contributor to the mainstream media and has written for CNN, Newsweek, openDemocracy, and the Independent amongst others. He served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Susana Moreira is an extractive-industries specialist at the World Bank. She received a PhD from the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies, focusing on Chinese national oil companies’ investment strategies in Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa. She is involved in several other research projects, including Coping with Crisis in African States and Sino-U.S. Energy Triangles. She served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Ben Morse is a PhD candidate in political science at the Massachusetts Institute for Technology. His research focuses on state-building and democratic governance in fragile states, with a particular emphasis on the relationship between political competition and state legitimation. He has conducted fieldwork in Liberia, Cote d’Ivoire, and Sierra Leone, and has worked on policy-focused research for Innovations for Poverty Action, the Norwegian Refugee Council, and the Government of Liberia. His work has been supported by the National Science Foundation, the International Growth Centre, and the Folke Bernadotte Academy. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Martijn Mos is a doctoral candidate at the Department of Government at Cornell University. His scholarly work focuses on the dynamics of shared understandings in international politics. He holds a master’s degree in European politics and society from the University of Oxford, a master’s degree in global history from the University of Vienna, and a bachelor’s degree in liberal arts and sciences from Utrecht University. He served as a Europe and Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Jasmin Mujanović holds a PhD in political science from York University. His research focuses on postwar democratization processes in the former Yugoslavia and, more broadly, on the role of social movements as drivers of democratic reform in postwar and postauthoritarian states. His work has appeared in a number of scholarly publications, and he is a regular international affairs analyst whose commentary has appeared in the New York Times, the Washington Post, Al Jazeera, and openDemocracy among other places. He served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Joachim Nahem is the director of the Governance Group and senior advisor with the Norwegian Institute of International Affairs (NUPI). He has held multiple posts with the United Nations and has published broadly on governance metrics. He is a contributor to the recent publication External Powers and the Arab Spring, and is a board member for Care Norway. Nahem holds degrees from the School of Foreign Service at Georgetown University and the London School of Economics. He served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Azra Naseem is a post-doctoral research fellow in the School of Law and Government at Dublin City University. She is the author of Dhivehi Sitee, a website providing analysis and commentary on political and social affairs of the Maldives. She served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Gareth Nellis is the Evidence in Governance and Politics postdoctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley. In 2016, he received his PhD in political science from Yale University, where he specialized in comparative politics, political economy, and modern South Asia. His research focuses on political parties, the origins and persistence of weakly institutionalized party systems, and the extent to which parties matter for key development outcomes. A second strand of work addresses the drivers of discrimination against internal migrants in fast-urbanizing settings. He served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Mooya Lynn Nyaundi is a staff attorney with the Justice Defenders Program at the American Bar Association Center for Human Rights, where she coordinates pro bono legal assistance for human rights defenders in Sub-Saharan Africa. Prior to this, she was a senior civil and criminal litigation associate with the law firm Scanlen and Holderness in Harare, Zimbabwe. She holds an LLB degree from the University of Zimbabwe and an LLM degree in international legal studies from Georgetown University. She served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Alysson Akiko Oakley is a PhD candidate at the Johns Hopkins University School of Advanced International Studies (SAIS). Previously, she served as a senior adviser at the International Republican Institute and program director at the U.S.-Indonesia Society. She received a master’s degree in international economics and Southeast Asian studies from SAIS and a bachelor’s degree in international relations from Brown University. She served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Ken Opalo is an assistant professor at Georgetown University in the School of Foreign Service. His research interests include the political economy of development, elections and accountability, and institutional development, with a focus on African legislatures. Ken has had extensive work and research experience in ten different countries in East, West, and Southern Africa. His work has been published in the Journal of Democracy and the Journal of East African Studies. He is currently working on a book manuscript titled Institutions and Political Change: The Case of African Legislatures, which examines the institutional development of African legislatures from the colonial period to the present. Ken holds a PhD degree in political science from Stanford University and a BA from Yale University. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Robert Orttung is research director at the George Washington University (GWU) Sustainability Collaborative and associate research professor of International Affairs at GWU’s Elliott School of International Affairs. He is managing editor of Demokratizatsiya: The Journal of Post-Soviet Democratization and a coeditor of the Russian Analytical Digest. He received a PhD in political science from the University of California, Los Angeles. He served as a Eurasia analyst for Freedom in the World.

Chantal Pasquarello is an international human rights and development expert with nearly fifteen years of experience designing and implementing protection programs for at-risk populations, as well as education and humanitarian programs, with over eight years of field experience in Africa and Latin America. As an independent consultant, she has primarily supported human rights projects in Honduras, Colombia, and Mexico. She previously worked extensively on human rights and development, and on and journalist protection issues, as deputy director for Freedom House’s Mexico office and while leading Freedom House’s emergency assistance program for activists and civil society organizations under threat. Prior to working with Freedom House, she coordinated the funding portfolio for the International Rescue Committee’s largest country program in the Democratic Republic of Congo. While working with the Kenya National Commission on Human Rights in Nairobi, she developed human rights education trainings for police and government ministers and assisted in launching preelection human rights advocacy campaigns. She graduated with highest honors in international relations from Lafayette College and earned an MA in international affairs from Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs (SIPA). She served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Nicole Phillips is an adjunct professor at the University of California Hastings College of the Law, a law professor at the Université de la Foundation Dr. Aristide in Port-au-Prince, and staff attorney with the Institute for Justice & Democracy in Haiti. She serves as a member of the board of directors of Human Rights Advocates, a nongovernmental organization with consultative status to the United Nations, and has appeared before various UN bodies and the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights. She earned her bachelor’s degree from the University of California, San Diego, in political science with a concentration in international relations, and her juris doctor degree from the University of San Francisco. She served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Arch Puddington is the Distinguished Fellow for Democracy Studies at Freedom House and coeditor of Freedom in the World. He has written widely on American foreign policy, race relations, organized labor, and the history of the Cold War. He is the author of Broadcasting Freedom: The Cold War Triumph of Radio Free Europe and Radio Liberty and Lane Kirkland: Champion of American Labor. He received a bachelor’s degree in English literature from the University of Missouri, Columbia. He served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Tyson Roberts is a lecturer in political science and international studies at the University of California, Irvine. His research interests include authoritarian institutions, democratization, and international political economy. He has published in Comparative Political Studies, Electoral Studies, the Journal of African Elections, and the Washington Post’s Monkey Cage blog. He received a PhD in Political Science from the University of California, Los Angeles. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Eric Robinson is the associate director for Africa at the National Endowment for Democracy (NED). He has helped guide the NED’s work in East, Horn, and Southern Africa for the past eight years and his academic and professional work for the past 20 years has had a special focus on the Horn of Africa. He received a master’s degree in international relations, with a focus on conflict resolution, from Wayne State University, Detroit, and a bachelor’s degree in political science from the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Ryan Salzman is assistant professor of political science at Northern Kentucky University. His teaching and scholarship is focused on topics including Central American media, democratic behaviors, social media use, and creative placemaking. He has worked with Freedom House since 2014 on the Freedom of the Press and the Freedom in the World publications. He received his PhD in political science from the University of North Texas in 2011. He served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Jean Scrimgeour is a public diplomacy and democratic governance specialist with experience working in the United States, the United Kingdom and Southern Africa. Currently a global proposal development manager for Volunteer Services Overseas, Jean was formerly a parliamentary, political, and communications officer for the British High Commission in South Africa and trade, science, and innovation communications lead for the British Embassy in Washington, DC. Jean has masters’s degree in conflict resolution in divided societies from Kings College in London as a British Chevening Scholar and a bachelor of social science degree in law and politics in international relations from the University of Cape Town. She served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Michael Semple is a visiting research professor at the Queen’s University, Belfast Institute, for the Study of Conflict Transformation and Social Justice. He has practiced and written on humanitarian assistance and conflict resolution in Afghanistan and Pakistan. Since 2008 he has worked as a scholar and adviser on conflict resolution, with particular focus on the Afghan conflict. He has directly advised key policymakers concerning the conflict in Afghanistan, particularly with regard to political engagement with the Taliban. He is currently researching the evolving rhetoric of the Taliban’s armed struggle and the challenges facing militant jihadi groups evolving towards a political role. He served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Debbie Sharnak received her PhD from the University of Wisconsin, Madison, and teaches at New York University and Hunter College. Her research focuses on transitional justice and human rights discourse in the Southern Cone. She has worked at several organizations including the International Center for Transitional Justice, Public Action Research, and the New Media Advocacy Project. Her work has been published by Foreign Policy, the North American Congress on Latin America (NACLA), Latin CorrespondentDiplomacy & Statecraft, and in several edited volumes. Debbie was also a Fulbright Scholar in Uruguay. She served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Dustin N. Sharp is an associate professor at the Kroc School of Peace Studies at the University of San Diego. He holds a juris doctor degree from Harvard Law School and a PhD from Leiden University. His research and teaching interests include international human rights law, transitional justice, and post-conflict peacebuilding. Sharp previously worked for Human Rights Watch, where he was responsible for designing and implementing research and advocacy strategies in Francophone West Africa. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Elton Skendaj is a lecturer in the Department of Political Science at the University of Miami. His research focuses on how international and local actors can sustain peace and democracy in postwar societies. He has published a book with Cornell University Press and several articles in the Global Governance and Problems of Postcommunism journals. He has also worked professionally with international organizations and civil society organizations in Europe and the U.S. Skendaj holds a PhD in government from Cornell University, and has had research fellowships at the Woodrow Wilson International Center for scholars and the University of Notre Dame. He served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Sheila A. Smith, an expert on Japanese politics and foreign policy, is senior fellow for Japan studies at the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR). She is the author of Intimate Rivals: Japanese Domestic Politics and a Rising China (Columbia University Press, 2015). She joined CFR from the East-West Center in 2007 and was a visiting scholar at Keio University in 2007-08 as part of the Abe Fellowship. Smith is vice chair of the U.S. advisors to the U.S.-Japan Conference on Cultural and Educational Exchange (CULCON) and serves on the advisory committee for the U.S.-Japan Network for the Future program of the Maureen and Mike Mansfield Foundation. She teaches as an adjunct professor at Georgetown University and serves on the board of its Journal of Asian Affairs. She earned her MA and PhD degrees from the Department of Political Science at Columbia University. She served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Amanda Snellinger is an affiliate scholar and lecturer in University of Washington’s Jackson School of International Studies. She received her PhD in anthropology from Cornell University and did postdoctoral research at University of Oxford’s School for Geography and the Environment. Her teaching and research interests include social and political mobility in South Asia through the lens of democratic and post-conflict theory. Her work has appeared in Counter Punch, Critical Asian Studies, Constellations: International Journal of Critical Democratic Theory, Cultural Anthropology, Current History, Modern Asian Studies, and Political and Legal Anthropology Review. She served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Natasha Borges Sugiyama is an associate professor of political science at the University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee. She received her PhD in government from the University of Texas at Austin. Her teaching interests include democratization, governance, and public policy in Latin America. Her research focuses on the politics of poverty relief, social sector reform, and human development in Brazil. She is author of Diffusion of Good Government: Social Sector Reforms in Brazil (University of Notre Dame Press, 2013). Her research has also been published in American Political Science Review, Comparative Politics, and Perspectives on Politics, among other journals. She served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Natalie Sykes is a third-year law student at Columbia Law School. She earned her master’s degree in human rights at the London School of Economics, and holds a bachelor’s degree in foreign service from Georgetown University. A former intern at Freedom House, she has written for both Freedom in the World and Freedom of the Press. She served as an Americas analyst for Freedom in the World.

Paul Thissen is a PhD candidate in political science at the University of California, Berkeley. His research interests include governance in weakly institutionalized states and civil conflict, with a focus on Sub-Saharan Africa. He has conducted research in Chad and Cameroon. His research has received support from the National Science Foundation and the United States Institute of Peace. In the 2015-2016 academic year, he was a visiting researcher and instructor at the Université Adam Barka d’Abéché in Chad. He served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Luca Tomini is a lecturer in political science at the Université libre de Bruxelles (ULB) and guest professor at the University of Antwerpen (Belgium). His main research interests cover transitions to democracy and democratization processes in a comparative perspective, including autocratization and democratic backsliding. He also works on the role of the European Union and its influence on the democratization of Central and Eastern Europe. He has recently published the book Democratizing Central and Eastern Europe (Routledge), and he is currently working on a new book titled Why Democracies Collapse (Routledge). In addition, he published with Palgrave Macmillan, and articles in Comparative European Politics, Europe-Asia Studies, and Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe. He served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Michael Toomey is a lecturer of political science at Wenzhou-Kean University in Wenzhou, China. He earned his master’s degrees in international studies and European politics from University of Limerick and Lund University respectively, and recently received his doctorate in global affairs from Rutgers University. He has contributed to Freedom of the Press, and served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Jenny Town is the assistant director of the U.S.-Korea Institute at Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies. Previously, she worked for the Human Rights in North Korea Project at Freedom House. She received a master’s degree from Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs, with a concentration in human rights. She served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Noah Tucker is the senior editor for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty’s Uzbek service, Ozodlik, and an associate at George Washington University’s Elliot School of International Affairs Central Asia Program (CAP). He was previously the lead researcher for the Central Asian Digital Islam Project launched with the University of Michigan Islamic Studies Program and CAP to explore the way social media is expanding the Islamic marketplace of ideas in Central Asia, and was the managing editor at Registan.net. As a research consultant, Noah worked on collaborative projects with government agencies and NGOs to identify the way social and religious groups affect political and security outcomes, and headed a team that tracks social media use by Uzbek violent extremist organizations and their effect on the Uzbek-language internet. He has worked on Central Asian issues since 2002—specializing in religion, national identity, ethnic conflict and social media—and received an MA from Harvard’s Davis Center in Russian, East European, and Central Asian Studies in 2008. He has spent four and half years in the region, primarily in Uzbekistan, returned most recently for fieldwork on religious education and community-level antiviolence initiatives in southern Kyrgyzstan and the surrounding areas in 2016. He served as a Eurasia analyst for Freedom in the World.

Kristian Coates Ulrichsen is a Baker Institute fellow for the Middle East. Working across the disciplines of political science, international relations, and international political economy, his research examines the changing position of Persian Gulf states in the global order, as well as the emergence of longer-term, nonmilitary challenges to regional security. His books include Insecure Gulf: The End of Certainty and the Transition to the Post-Oil Era and Qatar and the Arab Spring. His most recent book is entitled The Gulf States in International Political Economy. Coates Ulrichsen’s articles have appeared in numerous academic journals, including Global Policy and the Journal of Arabian Studies, and he consults regularly on Gulf issues for the public and private sector around the world. Coates Ulrichsen holds a doctorate in history from the University of Cambridge. He served as a Middle East and North Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Angela Vance is a senior program officer at the National Democratic Institute focusing on governance and advocacy issues in Africa. Previously, she served as a program officer at World Learning and was based in East Africa working for Pact, Save the Children, and Common Hope for Health. She holds a master’s degree in conflict, security, and development from King’s College London and a bachelor’s degree in international relations from American University with a concentration in peace and conflict resolution. She served as a sub-Saharan Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Wouter Veenendaal is an assistant professor of political science at Leiden University, the Netherlands. His research focuses on politics and democracy in small states, and he has conducted field research in various microstates and small states around the world. Between 2014 and 2016 he worked as a postdoctoral researcher at the Royal Netherlands Institute of Southeast Asian and Caribbean Studies, where he studied politics in nonsovereign territories, with a particular focus on the Dutch Caribbean. In his current research project, which is funded by a grant of the Dutch National Science Foundation, he examines the causes of regime stability in small states. His research has been published in various journals in the field of comparative politics, and in 2017 his new book will be published with Oxford University Press. He served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Anja Vojvodic is a PhD candidate at Rutgers University in New Brunswick, New Jersey. She studies women and politics, and comparative politics. Her interests include social movements in the Western Balkans, gender quota implementation in parliaments, and the substantive political representation of women and minority groups. Anja holds a master’s degree in global affairs from New York University and a bachelor’s degree in political science from Queens College. She was a United States Fulbright Scholar in Serbia from 2011-2012. She served as a Europe analyst for Freedom in the World.

Gregory White is a professor of government at Smith College. Recently he is the author of Climate Change and Migration: Borders and Security in a Warming World and a coedited volume North African Politics: Change and Continuity. He is the recipient of a Mellon Foundation New Directions Fellowship, as well as Fulbright-IIE and Fulbright-Hays scholarships to Tunisia and Morocco, respectively. He is a co-editor of the Journal of North African Studies. He received a PhD from the University of Wisconsin, Madison. He served as a Middle East and North Africa analyst for Freedom in the World.

Raisa Wickrematunge is currently coeditor at Groundviews, a civic media initiative. Previously, she worked at Sri Lanka’s national newspaper, the Sunday Leader, covering a variety of issues including politics, human rights, news, and features. She also has prior editorial experience as deputy chief subeditor and deputy features editor at the Sunday Leader. Raisa is a graduate of the University of Leicester, where she earned a MSc in Marketing, and received a bachelor’s degree in law from the University of London. She served as an Asia-Pacific analyst for Freedom in the World.

Mikayel Zolyan is a historian and political analyst. His interests include the South Caucasus and former USSR region, with a focus on such issues as democratization and nation-building in political movements and social activism, as well as issues of ethnicity, nationalism, and conflict. He served as a Eurasia analyst for Freedom in the World.

Academic Advisers

Julio F. Carrión is an associate professor and associate chair of the Department of Political Science and International Relations at the University of Delaware.

Kathleen Collins is an associate professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of Minnesota in Minneapolis.

Javier Corrales is Dwight W. Morrow 1895 Professor of Political Science at Amherst College.

Tanya Domi is an adjunct professor at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs, an affiliate faculty member of the university’s Harriman Institute, and a fellow at the Emerging Democracies Institute.

Tulia Falleti is the Class of 1965 Term associate professor of political science, director of the Latin American and Latino Studies Program, and senior fellow of the Leonard Davis Institute for Health Economics at the University of Pennsylvania.

Robert Lane Greene is an editor at the Economist in London, and a former adjunct assistant professor of global affairs at New York University.

Steven Heydemann is Janet W. Ketcham 1953 Professor and Director of Middle East Studies at Smith College, and a nonresident senior fellow at the Brookings Institution Center for Middle East Policy.

Melissa Labonte is an associate professor of political science and associate dean for strategic initiatives at the Graduate School of Arts and Sciences at Fordham University.

Thomas R. Lansner is an African affairs specialist who taught at Columbia University and Sciences Po Paris from 1994 to 2014, and is currently visiting faculty at Aga Khan University, Nairobi.

Adrienne LeBas is an associate professor of government at American University’s School of Public Affairs.

Fabrice Lehoucq is professor of political science at the University of North Carolina Greensboro.

Peter Lewis is an associate professor and director of the African Studies Program at Johns Hopkins University’s School of Advanced International Studies.

Adam Luedtke is an assistant professor of political science at City University of New York, Queensborough Community College.

Peter Mandaville is a professor of government and politics and director of the Ali Vural Ak Center for Islamic Studies at George Mason University.

Carl Minzner is a professor at Fordham Law School.

Alexander J. Motyl is a professor of political science at Rutgers University, Newark.

Andrew J. Nathan is the Class of 1919 Professor of Political Science at Columbia University.

Philip Oldenburg is a research scholar at Columbia University’s South Asia Institute.

Tsveta Petrova is a fellow at the Harriman Institute, Columbia University.

Samer S. Shehata is an associate professor and Middle East studies program coordinator at the University of Oklahoma.

Scott Taylor is a professor at the School of Foreign Service and director of the African Studies Program at Georgetown University.

Bridget Welsh is professor of political science at Ipek University, a senior research associate at the Center for East Asia Democratic Studies, National Taiwan University; a senior associate fellow of the Habibie Center; and a university fellow of Charles Darwin University.

Susanna Wing is an associate professor and chair of the political science department at Haverford College.