Nations in Transit
Nations in Transit 2013
Nations in Transit 2013: Authoritarian Aggression and the Pressures of Austerity
Nations in Transit 2013 is Freedom House’s comprehensive, comparative study of democratic development in 29 countries from Central Europe to Eurasia. This edition covers the period from January 1 through December 31, 2012 and measures progress according to the following indicators: electoral process, civil society, independent media, national democratic governance, local democratic governance, judicial framework and independence, and corruption.
In 2012, autocratic regimes in Eurasia fought energetically to keep the threat of democratic change at bay. In some cases, governments with established records of repression introduced new and arguably redundant measures to further constrain dissent, having already engaged in years of censorship, subjugated the justice system, and in some contexts resorted to violence. As a result, governance institutions in the region’s autocracies grew more dysfunctional, less independent, and more prone to corruption.
Meanwhile in Central Europe, a public backlash against unpopular austerity measures destabilized several governments in 2012, testing the durability of democratic institutions. Despite frequent government changes and heightened political polarization, most states in the region were able to respond to mounting pressure without significantly straying from core democratic norms. Corruption in the Balkan states appears to be deepening, despite pressure from the European Union and international lending institutions to strengthen judicial independence and produce verdicts in high-profile cases. Across the region, political interests and personal connections between government and business regularly influence public tender and privatization procedures. Judicial institutions are overburdened and subject to political interference. And journalists—particularly those covering organized crime and corruption—face political pressure, intimidation, and attacks.
Cover image photo credit: Aziz Karimov
Notable Trends in Nations in Transit 2013 include:
- Assault on civil society in Eurasia
- Electoral gains in Georgia and Armenia; abuses in Russia and Ukraine
- Signs of strain under austerity in Central Europe
- Persistent corruption in the Balkans