Stepanakert, Nagorno-Karabakh. Editorial Credit: N.Petrosyan / Shutterstock.com

Nagorno-Karabakh*

The Republic of Nagorno-Karabakh, which also calls itself the Republic of Artsakh, has enjoyed de facto independence from Azerbaijan since a 1994 cease-fire agreement that ended roughly two years of open warfare, though its independence is not recognized by any UN member states. The territory’s population is mostly ethnic Armenians, and given its geographic and diplomatic isolation, it has been dependent on close political and economic ties with Armenia. However, a third of Nagorno-Karabakh and some adjacent land came under Azerbaijani control in 2020 under a cease-fire agreement that ended a weeks-long conflict that year.

People gather in Myanmar to protest the February 1, 2021 military coup. (Image credit: Stringer/Anadolu Agency via Getty Images)

Freedom in the World — Nagorno-Karabakh Territory Report

Nagorno-Karabakh is rated Partly Free in Freedom in the World 2022, Freedom House's annual study of political rights and civil liberties worldwide. 

* Indicates a territory as opposed to an independent country.