Acknowledgements - Freedom on the Net 2019
The Freedom on the Net project builds the capacity of its network of researchers—in-country bloggers, academics, journalists, and tech experts chosen for their promise and expertise—by providing the analytical tools to serve as the future generation of internet freedom defenders around the world.
Freedom on the Net is an annual study of internet freedom.
The report features an overview of key trends and emerging threats, global rankings, and in-depth country assessments. Initially covering 15 countries in the 2009 pilot edition, Freedom on the Net has expanded to 65, or 87 percent of internet users worldwide. Countries are selected on the basis of the size of their internet population, their regional or global relevance, and the unique quality of their national internet policy. More than 70 analysts contributed to the 2019 edition, using a 21-question research methodology that addresses a range of issues related to internet access, freedom of expression, and privacy. The 2019 edition focuses on developments that occurred between June 2018 and May 2019. The report’s findings are used to inform fact-based advocacy by Freedom House and local partners around the world. Further information on the methodology and contributors may be found below.
Freedom on the Net scores have been inverted in the 2019 edition to align with scores for Freedom in the World, Freedom House’s flagship report on political rights and civil liberties. Each country is rated on a scale of 100 to 0, with 100 representing the most free conditions and 0 the least free.
- U.S. State Department’s Bureau of Human Rights and Labor (DRL)
- The New York Community Trust
- Internet Society
- Verizon Media
- Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs
- German Federal Foreign Office
- Golden Frog
- Schloss Family Foundation
- United Nations Democracy Fund (UNDEF)
- U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)
Freedom on the Net is a collaborative effort between a small team of Freedom House staff and an extensive network of local researchers and advisors in 65 countries. Our in-country researchers have diverse backgrounds—academia, blogging, traditional journalism, and tech— and track developments from their country of expertise. In the most repressive environments, Freedom House takes care to ensure researchers’ anonymity or, in exceptional cases, works with foreign nationals living outside their home country.
Freedom House Research Team
- Adrian Shahbaz, Research Director, Technology and Democracy
- Mai Truong, Research Director, Strategy and Management
- Allie Funk, Research Analyst
- Amy Slipowitz, Senior Research Associate
- Isabel Linzer, Research Associate
- Noah Buyon, Research Associate
Tyler Roylance, Shannon O’Toole, and Chris Brandt edited the report. Sarah Cook advised the China report. Jessica White provided research for Latin America. Alexander Rochefort provided research assistance.
- Angola: Paulo Guilherme Figueiredo, independent researcher
- Argentina: Carolina Aguerre and Ivan Kirschbaum, CETyS Universidad de San Andres
- Armenia: Samvel Martirosyan, director of ArmSec Foundation
- Australia: Rose Dlougatch, lawyer
- Azerbaijan: Arzu Geybulla, freelance journalist
- Canada: Allen Mendelsohn, independent legal practitioner and McGill University Faculty of Law
- Colombia: Pedro Vaca Villarreal, Fundación para la Libertad de Prensa (FLIP)
- Cuba: Ted Henken, Baruch College, CUNY
- Ecuador: Iria Puyosa, independent researcher
- Estonia: Katrin Nyman Metcalf, Tallinn University of Technology
- Ethiopia: Endalkachew Chala, Hamline University, Department of Communication Studies
- France: Jean-Loup Richet, Associate Professor at IAE Paris - Sorbonne Business School; Antoine Cervoise, security researcher
- Gambia: Demba Kandeh, School of Journalism and Digital Media, University of The Gambia
- Georgia: Teona Turashvili, Institute for Development of Freedom of Information (IDFI)
- Germany: Michael Puntschuh and Philipp Otto, iRights.Lab
- Hungary: Dalma Dojcsák, Hungarian Civil Liberties Union
- Iceland: Caroline Nellemann, independent researcher
- India: Centre for Communication Governance at National Law University Delhi
- Indonesia: Sherly Haristya, independent researcher
- Iran: Kaveh Azarhoosh and James Marchant, Small Media
- Italy: Philip Di Salvo, Institute of Media and Journalism, Università della Svizzera italiana (USI); Antonella Napolitano, Policy Officer, Privacy International
- Japan: Hamada Tadahisa, chair of Japan Computer Access for Empowerment (JCAFE)
- Jordan: Jordan Open Source Association
- Kyrgyzstan: Artem Goriainov, PF "Civil Initiative on Internet Policy"
- Lebanon: SMEX
- Libya: Younes Nagem, independent researcher
- Malaysia: K Kabilan, journalist media consultant
- Mexico: Ninoska Pérez Rodríguez, Phi, Indira Cornelio, #SeguridadDigital
- Myanmar: Oliver Spencer and Yin Yadanar Thein, Free Expression Myanmar (FEM)
- Nigeria: ‘Gbenga Sesan, Executive Director, Paradigm Initiative; Babatunde Okunoye, Research Officer, Paradigm Initiative
- Pakistan: Nighat Dad and Shmyla Khan, Digital Rights Foundation
- Singapore: Kirsten Han, New Naratif
- South Africa: Dr. Ololade Shyllon, human rights lawyer and independent researcher
- South Korea: Dr. Yenn Lee, Senior Lecturer, SOAS University of London
- Sri Lanka: Raisa Wickrematunge, independent researcher
- Syria: Alaa Ghazal, Syrian Center for Media and Freedom of Expression
- Ukraine: Dariya Orlova, Senior Lecturer and researcher, Mohyla School of Journalism, National University of Kyiv-Mohyla Academy
- United Kingdom: Aaron Ceross, University of Oxford
- United States: Laura Reed, independent researcher
- Uzbekistan: Ernest Zhanaev, independent researcher
- Venezuela: Dr. Raisa Urribarri, journalist and consultant; Professor Emeritus at Universidad de Los Andes
The analysts for the reports on Bahrain, Bangladesh, Belarus, Brazil, Cambodia, China, Egypt, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Malawi, Morocco, Philippines, Russia, Rwanda, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Thailand, Tunisia, Turkey, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vietnam, Zambia, and Zimbabwe have requested to remain anonymous.
Freedom on the Net 2019: The Crisis of Social Media
Read the Freedom on the Net 2019 overview essay here.
Digital Election Intereference
Politicians and hyperpartisans use digital means to manipulate elections.
Social Media Surveillance
Governments are increasingly using digital technology to monitor citizens’ behavior online.
Hero Photo Caption: An authorized rally in protest against Internet censorship takes place in central Moscow. Credit: Vladimir Gerdo\TASS via Getty Images.