People in Sukhumi, Abkhazia. Editorial credit: Evgeny Shmulev /


Abkhazia, a breakaway region of Georgia, has maintained de facto independence since the end of a civil conflict in 1993. The government is financially dependent on Russia, which has a military presence in Abkhazia and is one of a handful of states that recognizes the territory’s independence. The tumultuous political environment features significant opposition and civil society activity. Ongoing problems include a flawed criminal justice system, discrimination against ethnic Georgians, and a lack of economic opportunity.

Freedom in the World 2023

Freedom in the World — Abkhazia Territory Report

Abkhazia is rated Partly Free in Freedom in the World 2023, Freedom House's annual study of political rights and civil liberties worldwide.

* Indicates a territory as opposed to an independent country.