People in Lagos, Nigeria. Editorial credit:  Santos Akhilele Aburime /


While Nigeria has made significant improvements to the quality of its elections since the 1999 transition to democratic rule, the 2019 presidential and National Assembly elections, which saw President Muhammadu Buhari reelected and the All Progressives Congress (APC) regain its legislative majority, were marred by irregularities. Corruption remains endemic in the key petroleum industry. Security challenges, including insurgencies, kidnappings, and communal and sectarian violence in the Middle Belt region, threaten the human rights of millions of Nigerians. Military and law enforcement agencies often engage in extrajudicial killings, torture, and other abuses. Civil liberties are undermined by religious and ethnic bias, while women and LGBT+ people face pervasive discrimination. The vibrant media landscape is impeded by criminal defamation laws, as well as the frequent harassment and arrests of journalists who cover politically sensitive topics.

Freedom on the Net 2023

Freedom on the Net — Nigeria Country Report

Nigeria is rated Partly Free in Freedom on the Net, Freedom House's comprehensive study of internet freedom around the globe.

Iranian people in Izmir protest the death of Mahsa Amini by the morality police in Iran.

Freedom in the World — Nigeria Country Report

Nigeria is rated Partly Free in Freedom in the World 2023, Freedom House's annual study of political rights and civil liberties worldwide.