India maintains a robust electoral democracy with a competitive multiparty system at the federal and state levels, though politics are marred by corruption. The constitution guarantees civil liberties including freedom of expression and freedom of religion, but harassment of journalists and other government critics has increased under Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), as have religiously motivated attacks against non-Hindus. Certain minority groups—notably Muslims, scheduled castes (Dalits), and scheduled tribes (Adivasis)—remain economically and socially marginalized despite general legal equality and, in some cases, affirmative-action programs.
Freedom in the World — India Country Report
India is rated Partly Free in Freedom in the World 2021, Freedom House's annual study of political rights and civil liberties worldwide.
Countries in the Spotlight
Freedom in the World's Countries in the Spotlight features countries that experienced important developments in 2019 that affected their democratic trajectory, and deserve special scrutiny in 2020. In India, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s discriminatory actions against Muslims, and a fierce crackdown on protesters opposing the changes, indicated a deterioration of basic freedoms in the world’s largest democracy. View the full report to learn about the other Countries in the Spotlight.
Freedom on the Net — India Country Report
India is rated Partly Free in Freedom on the Net, Freedom House's comprehensive study of internet freedom around the globe.
India: Spyware Use Violates Supreme Court Privacy Ruling
August 26, 2021
Q&A: Social Media Regulation and the Perils of Section 230 Reform
April 21, 2021
NEW REPORT: Democracy under Lockdown - The Impact of COVID-19 on Global Freedom
October 2, 2020
India’s TikTok Ban Tightens the Government’s Grasp on the Internet
July 31, 2020
How COVID-19 Restrictions Have Deepened Existing Inequality
June 8, 2020
State-Sponsored Religious Discrimination Rises with the Pandemic
May 18, 2020