Hundreds of protestors on Saturday took to streets in Delhi’s Jantar Mantar against the recent amendments made to the Citizenship Act.  New Delhi, India. 14 December 2019. Editorial credit: Sauvik Acharyya /


India maintains a robust electoral democracy with a competitive multiparty system at the federal and state levels, though politics are marred by corruption. The constitution guarantees civil liberties including freedom of expression and freedom of religion, but harassment of journalists and other government critics has increased under Prime Minister Narendra Modi and his Hindu nationalist Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP), as have religiously motivated attacks against non-Hindus. Certain minority groups—notably Muslims, scheduled castes (Dalits), and scheduled tribes (Adivasis)—remain economically and socially marginalized despite general legal equality and, in some cases, affirmative-action programs.

Freedom in the World 2021

Freedom in the World — India Country Report

India is rated Partly Free in Freedom in the World 2021, Freedom House's annual study of political rights and civil liberties worldwide.

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Countries in the Spotlight

Freedom in the World's Countries in the Spotlight features countries that experienced important developments in 2019 that affected their democratic trajectory, and deserve special scrutiny in 2020. In India, Prime Minister Narendra Modi’s discriminatory actions against Muslims, and a fierce crackdown on protesters opposing the changes, indicated a deterioration of basic freedoms in the world’s largest democracy. View the full report to learn about the other Countries in the Spotlight.

A young woman wearing a protective mask looks at her smartphone while passing by a grafitti representing two big watching eyes in Berlin, Germany on April 1, 2020. Illustrative Editorial (Photo by Emmanuele Contini/NurPhoto via Getty Images)

Freedom on the Net — India Country Report

India is rated Partly Free in Freedom on the Net, Freedom House's comprehensive study of internet freedom around the globe.