Kashmiri journalists protest against the ongoing internet blockade. Srinagar, Kashmir, India.  12 November 2019.  Editorial credit: FAROOQ KHAN/​EPA-EFE/​Shutterstock.com

Indian Kashmir*

Control of Kashmir has been divided between India and Pakistan since 1948, and Indian-administered Kashmir long enjoyed substantial autonomy under India’s constitution. However, the region’s autonomous status was revoked in 2019, and what had been the state of Jammu and Kashmir was reconstituted as two union territories under the direct control of the Indian central government. The move stripped residents of many of their previous political rights. Civil liberties were also curtailed to quell public opposition to the reorganization. Indian security forces are frequently accused of human rights violations, but few are punished. Separatist and jihadist militants continue to wage a protracted insurgency.

FIW Hong Kong hero photo

Freedom in the World — Indian Kashmir Report

Indian Kashmir’s status declined from Partly Free to Not Free in the Freedom in the World report, due to the Indian government’s abrupt revocation of the territory’s autonomy, the dissolution of its local elected institutions, and a security crackdown that sharply curtailed civil liberties and included mass arrests of local politicians and activists.

* Indicates a territory as opposed to an independent country.