People in Ginda, Eritrea. Editorial credit: Hailu Wudineh TSEGAYE / Shutterstock.com

Eritrea

Eritrea is a militarized authoritarian state that has not held a national election since independence from Ethiopia in 1993. The People’s Front for Democracy and Justice (PFDJ), headed by President Isaias Afwerki, is the sole political party. Arbitrary detention is commonplace, and citizens are required to perform national service, often for their entire working lives. The government shut down all independent media in 2001.

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Freedom in the World — Eritrea Country Report

Eritrea is rated Not Free in Freedom in the World, Freedom House's annual study of political rights and civil liberties worldwide.