Somalia has struggled to reestablish a functioning state since the collapse of an authoritarian regime in 1991. Limited, indirect elections brought a federal government to power in 2012. By 2016, it had established five federal member states, though these semiautonomous regions are often at odds with the central government. The government’s territorial control is also contested by a separatist government in Somaliland and by the Shabaab, an Islamist militant group. No direct national elections have been held to date, and political affairs remain dominated by clan divisions. Amid ongoing insecurity, human rights abuses by both state and nonstate actors occur regularly.
Freedom in the World — Somalia Country Report
Somalia is rated Not Free in Freedom in the World 2023, Freedom House's annual study of political rights and civil liberties worldwide.
News & Perspectives on Somalia
With New Members, the UN Human Rights Council Goes from Bad to Worse
November 19, 2018
Freedom in the World 2015: Freedom declines for ninth year
January 27, 2015