• header1 Issues of concern

    • The intermingling of business, political, and media interests inhibits the development of independent news outlets. Reporters have been targeted with frivolous lawsuits, and risk intimidation and occasional physical attacks.
    • Official corruption is pervasive, and public procurement processes and public finances are nontransparent. Courts are subject to political pressure, and public trust in the judiciary is low.
    • The election commission’s operations are opaque, and it has failed to sanction parties that commit electoral violations.

    On Albania

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    • Global Freedom Score

      67 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • After decades of rule by a single party, corruption and patronage have become entrenched in nearly all segments of public and private life.
    • The country has never held municipal elections, and plans to do so have stalled over the past year.
    • Security forces enjoy impunity for violent acts, including torture and extrajudicial killings committed against protesters, detainees, activists, and others.

    On Angola

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    • Global Freedom Score

      30 100 not free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      62 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Government corruption remains a concern, and anticorruption laws are enforced unevenly.
    • Critical journalists remain at risk of libel suits.
    • Women and LGBT+ people are underrepresented in politics and experience some discrimination.

    On Antigua and Barbuda

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    • Global Freedom Score

      85 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Official corruption is widespread. Anticorruption bodies are impeded in their work by executive influence and corrupt officials’ reliance on legal immunity.
    • The judicial branch is affected by inefficiency, delay, and political interference.
    • Drug-related violence remains a serious issue, especially in the northern and central regions.

    On Argentina

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    • Global Freedom Score

      84 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      71 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Women remain underrepresented in politics and government, and most parties do little to address women’s interests aside from meeting the gender quota on candidate lists.
    • The courts face systemic political influence, and judicial institutions are undermined by corruption.

    On Armenia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      55 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      71 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The constitution and other laws do not explicitly protect press freedom.
    • Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples continue to face socioeconomic disparities and routine discrimination by law enforcement agencies.
    • Many asylum seekers remain in indefinite detention, including at offshore facilities.

    On Australia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      95 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      75 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Political corruption has been a problem, and the government is often criticized for inadequate transparency.
    • Muslims face discriminatory rhetoric from politicians, legal restrictions on foreign funding for houses of worship, and bans on some face coverings.
    • Asylum seekers and other marginalized groups face difficulty exercising their fundamental rights.

    On Austria

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    • Global Freedom Score

      93 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The government has failed to implement key anticorruption measures, and no major officials have faced arrest under the current administration.
    • Barbados lacks key laws on government transparency and official integrity.
    • Police officers are known to coerce information from suspects through physical abuse.

    On Barbados

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    • Global Freedom Score

      95 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption scandals have drawn attention to abuses involving politicians who hold multiple positions on the boards of public and private entities.
    • The rising influence of hard-right nationalist parties has been accompanied by racism and xenophobia, and members of minority religious groups have complained of discrimination and harassment.

    On Belgium

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    • Global Freedom Score

      96 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Significant struggles with corruption continue, and there are persistent problems with procurement processes and officials’ financial disclosure statements.
    • Discrimination against LGBT+ people and Indigenous groups, particularly those of Mayan descent, persists, affecting their ability to engage in political processes.
    • Belize remains among the countries with the highest per capita murder rates in the world.

    On Belize

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    • Global Freedom Score

      87 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • While it is considered one of the most stable democracies in Africa, Botswana has been dominated by a single party since independence.
    • Media freedom remains under threat.
    • The San people—an Indigenous group—face discrimination and mistreatment, as do migrants, refugees, and LGBT+ people.

    On Botswana

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    • Global Freedom Score

      72 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption is endemic, especially among elected officials, contributing to widespread disillusionment with and dysfunction in the political system.
    • Independent journalists and civil society activists face harassment and violent attacks in reprisal for their work on politically sensitive topics.
    • The population suffers from high rates of violent crime and impunity for police abuses that disproportionately affect Black, Indigenous, and LGBT+ people.

    On Brazil

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    • Global Freedom Score

      73 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      64 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The country continues to struggle with political corruption and organized crime.
    • Due process rights are not always upheld, with police engaging in arbitrary arrests and failing to inform suspects of rights.
    • Ethnic minorities, particularly Roma, face employment, health-care, education, and housing discrimination.

    On Bulgaria

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    • Global Freedom Score

      79 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Access to justice is impaired by an overburdened court system.
    • Women and immigrant workers face discrimination by employers.

    On Cabo Verde

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    • Global Freedom Score

      92 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • First Nations people remain subject to widespread discrimination, struggle with food insecurity, and face unequal access to education, health care, public services, and employment.
    • Citizens and rights groups have expressed concern about the scope of government surveillance powers.
    • A draft legal framework meant to create safer online experiences would impose sweeping restrictions on content.

    On Canada

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    • Global Freedom Score

      98 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      87 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • While 2019 mass protests forced the government to begin reforming the dictatorship-era constitution, the drafting process has given way to an unusual level of polarization that threatens to disrupt a long period of political stability.
    • The national police have at times used excessive force to disperse peaceful demonstrations, notably during the 2019 protests and their anniversaries, as well as against demonstrations by Mapuche activists demanding that their territorial and other rights be protected.

    On Chile

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    • Global Freedom Score

      94 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Despite a 2016 peace accord, paramilitary and guerrilla groups remain active, impairing citizens’ ability to safely participate in the political process and causing internal displacement.
    • Journalists, social leaders, and human rights defenders face intimidation and violence—including murder—in retaliation for their work.
    • The military engaged in the systematic killing of civilians during the civil war and has subsequently engaged in extrajudicial violence in the postwar period.

    On Colombia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      64 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      65 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Discrimination is a serious issue that affects women, Indigenous people, Costa Ricans of African descent, and other marginalized groups.
    • Crimes against honor such as slander and libel are defined as criminal offenses, which can be applied to individuals’ online activities.
    • Sex trafficking and child sex tourism are serious problems, and gender-based violence persists despite legal protections.

    On Costa Rica

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    • Global Freedom Score

      91 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      87 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The Roma and ethnic Serbs face discrimination, as do LGBT+ people.
    • Official corruption—including nepotism, bribery, fraud, and patronage—remains a serious problem.
    • In recent years, concerns about far-right groups and figures espousing discriminatory values in public life have increased.

    On Croatia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      85 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Early releases for those convicted of corruption have drawn criticism in recent years.
    • Authorities have allegedly pushed back vessels carrying refugees, and asylum seekers often face poor conditions, backlogs, discrimination, and occasional violence.

    On Cyprus

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    • Global Freedom Score

      93 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Political corruption and lack of transparency in public procurement remain problems.
    • The Roma community faces discrimination, poor housing, and poor educational opportunities, despite the existence of antidiscrimination legislation.
    • Asylum seekers are routinely detained, and the government has resisted accepting refugees.

    On Czech Republic

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    • Global Freedom Score

      91 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Political elites have improperly manipulated the electoral process in recent years.
    • Corruption in the government, security forces, and mineral extraction industries is extensive and has corroded public services and development efforts.
    • Physical security is tenuous due to violence and human rights abuses committed by government forces, armed rebel groups, and militias that are active in many areas of the country.

    On Democratic Republic of the Congo

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    • Global Freedom Score

      19 100 not free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Muslim and foreign-born residents face state pressure to assimilate, including through a ban on face coverings in public and a broad “antighetto” initiative.
    • Immigration laws are harsh, and asylum seekers are subject to administrative backlogs as well as physical restrictions and uneven access to services.

    On Denmark

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    • Global Freedom Score

      97 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Concerns over electoral management and the pace of electoral reform persist, despite recommendations from the Organization of American States and opposition challenges to previous results.
    • Corruption among elected politicians and within the Citizenship by Investment program for foreigners remains problematic.
    • Protests are sometimes affected by violence, looting, vandalism, and excessive use of force from the authorities.

    On Dominica

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    • Global Freedom Score

      93 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption remains a systematic problem in the private sector and at all levels of government, with politicians routinely accepting bribes.
    • Dominican-Haitians and Haitian migrants face persistent discrimination, including obstacles in securing legal documents, while Dominican-born descendants of Haitian migrants were stripped of their citizenship in 2013.
    • Women are underrepresented in the political sphere and additionally face pervasive violence and societal discrimination.

    On Dominican Republic

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    • Global Freedom Score

      68 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Ecuador’s political system remains susceptible to corruption, which persists due to weaknesses in the judiciary and a lack of oversight capacity.
    • Governing bodies have been historically opaque, despite efforts to improve access to information.
    • Indigenous people and immigrants face discrimination.

    On Ecuador

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    • Global Freedom Score

      71 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      62 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption is a persistent challenge, though the legal framework and law enforcement agencies provide important checks.
    • Ethnic Russians, Roma, LGBT+ people, and members of other groups face discrimination despite broad legal safeguards.

    On Estonia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      94 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      94 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The military has a history of interfering in Fijian politics and is still perceived to maintain undue political influence.
    • Fijians interacting with the criminal system are affected by police corruption, physical abuse by the authorities, and overcrowded prisons.
    • The government is ineffective in combating the sex trafficking of children.

    On Fiji

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    • Global Freedom Score

      58 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Vandalism directed at Jewish and Muslim communities has been reported.
    • Journalists sometimes face harassment for their work, particularly when covering topics related to immigrants and immigration.
    • Far-right hate speech aimed at immigrants and others remains a problem.

    On Finland

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    • Global Freedom Score

      100 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • State surveillance has increased, and the laws permit monitoring without a court order in some circumstances.
    • Police have used excessive force against protesters.
    • Migrants and refugees experience societal discrimination and abuse by authorities.

    On France

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    • Global Freedom Score

      89 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      78 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Elections, while competitive, are affected by voter intimidation, vote buying, the abuse of state resources, and incidents of violence.
    • Police have used excessive force against protesters, detainees, and arrestees, and Georgia lacks an independent system to address claims of official mistreatment.
    • Women and LGBT+ people face societal discrimination and violence.

    On Georgia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      58 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      77 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Large numbers of long-term residents cannot vote in federal elections, due in part to restrictive citizenship and voting laws.
    • The regulatory framework for lobbying members of parliament is considered insufficient.
    • New legislation that expands the surveillance powers of intelligence services and police has raised privacy concerns.

    On Germany

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    • Global Freedom Score

      94 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      79 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • In 2021, lawmakers introduced a discriminatory bill that, if passed, would impose harsh criminal penalties on LGBT+ people and those who support their basic human rights.
    • Corruption and bribery in government and the judicial system continue to pose challenges.
    • Journalists and bloggers increasingly risk arrest and online harassment for their critical reporting.

    On Ghana

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    • Global Freedom Score

      80 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      64 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The transparency of state procurement contracts and other public spending remains a concern.
    • Greek authorities have been accused of forcibly returning migrants and asylum seekers who attempt to enter irregularly from Turkey by land and sea.

    On Greece

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    • Global Freedom Score

      87 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption remains a prominent issue in Grenada, particularly through the Citizenship by Investment (CBI) program, despite legal safeguards to prevent it.
    • Politicians have initiated defamation lawsuits against the media, contributing to self-censorship among journalists who may not be able to afford legal costs or resulting fines.
    • Although rarely enforced, same-sex sexual activity between men is criminalized, and LGBT+ people face significant societal discrimination.

    On Grenada

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    • Global Freedom Score

      89 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Guyana’s election laws and electoral commission have received harsh criticism, characterized as dysfunctional and failing to prevent interference by officials, among other shortcomings.
    • Laws barring discrimination against Indigenous people, women, and others are not effectively enforced, and same-sex sexual activity is punishable with harsh jail terms.
    • Defendants are often held in pretrial detention for longer than their maximum possible sentence, and reports of police violence and abuse of detainees persist.

    On Guyana

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    • Global Freedom Score

      73 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Major companies and public officials have engaged in corrupt behavior, and some implicated officials have continued to serve in government.
    • Migrant workers have faced systemic exploitation in recent years, and the employers responsible have often gone unpunished.

    On Iceland

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    • Global Freedom Score

      94 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      96 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The political rights of India’s Muslims are threatened, and marginalized segments of the population face obstacles to full political representation.
    • The government continues to harass journalists and impose frequent internet shutdowns, while social media companies face broad obligations to restrict online content at the request of authorities, and to undermine end-to-end encryption.
    • Human rights and some advocacy groups face threats, legal harassment, excessive police force, and occasionally lethal violence.

    On India

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    • Global Freedom Score

      66 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      49 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Adherents of unrecognized and minority faiths face discrimination, official bias, and violence in some cases.
    • Freedom of expression for ordinary Indonesians and journalists is affected by the use of defamation and blasphemy laws as well as internet-connectivity and social-media disruptions.
    • Official corruption is endemic, and the efficacy of anticorruption agencies is affected by rivalries and legal restrictions on their work.

    On Indonesia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      59 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      48 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Elections are marred by delays, low turnout, and allegations of fraud and impropriety.
    • Corruption, especially within political parties and the judiciary, remains a major problem.
    • Protesters face lethal violence by security forces as well as retaliatory shootings and kidnappings by Iranian-backed militia units.

    On Iraq

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    • Global Freedom Score

      29 100 not free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      41 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • According to the EU Agency for Fundamental Rights, two-thirds of the Irish Travellers and Roma in Ireland face discrimination based on their ethnicity.
    • Prisons and detention facilities are frequently dangerous, unsanitary, overcrowded, and ill-equipped for prisoners with mental illness.

    On Ireland

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    • Global Freedom Score

      97 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Israel’s military occupation of the West Bank and Gaza Strip entails onerous constraints on movement for Palestinians, demolition of Palestinian homes and infrastructure, and restrictions on Palestinians’ political and civil liberties.
    • Within Israel, discrimination against Arab and other ethnic or religious minority populations has resulted in systemic disparities in areas including political representation, criminal justice, education, and economic opportunity.
    • Senior officials have been implicated in corruption cases in recent years, and the environment for nongovernmental organizations has deteriorated.

    On Israel

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    • Global Freedom Score

      76 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The endemic problems of corruption and organized crime pose an enduring challenge to the rule of law.
    • The country’s treatment of migrants, refugees, and asylum seekers has been subject to significant criticism in recent years.

    On Italy

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    • Global Freedom Score

      90 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      76 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Powerful criminal organizations can influence voters in areas under their control.
    • Corruption remains a serious problem, and long-standing relationships between officials and organized crime figures allegedly persist.
    • Violent crime and gang and vigilante violence remain concerns, as do killings by police.

    On Jamaica

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    • Global Freedom Score

      80 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Employment discrimination and sexual harassment against women are common and women remain underrepresented in government.
    • No national law bars discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identity, and LGBT+ people face social stigma and in some cases harassment.
    • Several laws regulate online activities and provide for potentially disproportionate criminal penalties.

    On Japan

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    • Global Freedom Score

      96 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      76 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The Ethics and Anti-Corruption Commission lacks prosecutorial power, and has been largely unsuccessful in pursuing corruption cases.
    • Violence by security forces against suspects and detainees, including extrajudicial killings, remains a serious concern.
    • Data privacy remains a concern, especially as the government seeks to expand its access to data stored by telecommunications providers and other companies.

    On Kenya

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    • Global Freedom Score

      48 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      66 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Kiribati lacks comprehensive regulations on public asset disclosure for officials, access to government information, and other transparency matters.
    • Outstanding problems include a ban on same-sex sexual activity and some forms of gender discrimination.

    On Kiribati

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    • Global Freedom Score

      93 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Powerful business interests and criminal organizations exercise undue political influence, and institutional structures meant to combat the problem are weak.
    • Journalists often face threats and intimidation, and they sometimes suffer physical attacks.
    • Judicial independence has historically been undermined by political interference and widespread corruption.

    On Kosovo

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    • Global Freedom Score

      56 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption remains a major problem affecting politics, the judiciary, and the wider criminal justice system.
    • Lawmakers have interfered with academic freedom through “moral education” legislation, restrictions on minority-language instruction, and by allowing the firing of “disloyal” teachers.

    On Latvia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      88 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The judiciary is impeded by corruption, backlogs, funding shortfalls, and political interference.
    • Many people accused of crimes spend more time in pretrial detention than they would serve if convicted and sentenced.
    • Gender-based violence is pervasive, and customary law disadvantages women in matters including inheritance and child custody.

    On Liberia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      60 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption remains an issue in Lithuania, and areas including health care, construction, and the judiciary are considered to be notably susceptible.
    • LGBT+ people and Roma face societal discrimination despite existing legislation meant to combat it.

    On Lithuania

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    • Global Freedom Score

      89 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • There is no comprehensive freedom of information law, and safeguards against conflicts of interest are lacking.
    • Onerous language requirements limit the ability of immigrant workers to access public-sector employment.

    On Luxembourg

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    • Global Freedom Score

      97 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption is endemic in Malawi, and civil society leaders have accused the anticorruption body of being ineffective and politically compromised.
    • Arbitrary arrests, police brutality, extrajudicial killings are common.
    • Internet users are routinely arrested and fined for their online speech.

    On Malawi

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    • Global Freedom Score

      66 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      59 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • UMNO and the PAS are defenders of long-standing policies that favor the ethnic Malay and Muslim majority. While Malaysia is religiously diverse, legal provisions restrict religious freedom.
    • A lack of independent oversight regarding state-affiliated companies and investment funds has long created conditions conducive to corruption.
    • The change of government in March 2020 brought increased government pressure on private media.

    On Malaysia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      50 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      58 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Freedom of religion is severely restricted.
    • NGOs must obtain government approval before seeking domestic or foreign funding, and regulators have broad discretion to investigate and dissolve them.
    • Large state contracts for infrastructure and other projects are regularly awarded through opaque processes in which corruption is widely believed to play a role.

    On Maldives

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    • Global Freedom Score

      40 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • State anticorruption efforts are considered weak, and government officials and businesspeople have been linked to corruption in recent years.
    • Requests for public information are not always answered, details of government contracts are sometimes withheld, and land-use and construction decisions are nontransparent.
    • Many Maltese fear retribution for criticizing powerful actors, and journalists experience widespread harassment via social media platforms.

    On Malta

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    • Global Freedom Score

      89 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption is a chronic problem, particularly in the allocation of foreign aid and in government procurements.
    • There is no explicit ban on discrimination in employment, nor against discrimination based on sexual orientation.

    On Marshall Islands

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    • Global Freedom Score

      93 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Individuals have been arrested under the Information and Communication Technology Act for criticizing government policies.
    • LGBT+ people face discrimination and targeted violence, which can discourage their active political participation.
    • Women and children are vulnerable to sex trafficking, and government efforts to combat this issue have been inadequate.

    On Mauritius

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    • Global Freedom Score

      86 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Mexico is especially dangerous for journalists, who regularly face violence, including murder, over their activity. Press outlets and individual journalists self-censor in violent areas and over sensitive subjects.
    • Mexicans face violence at the hands of criminal groups, police, and the military, the latter of which engages in torture, enforced disappearances, and extrajudicial executions with impunity.
    • According to several reports, Mexico the highest rate of femicide in Latin America.

    On Mexico

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    • Global Freedom Score

      60 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      60 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Complaints about misuse of public resources are frequent.
    • Ongoing problems include low reporting of domestic violence, and the exploitation of migrant workers.

    On Micronesia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      92 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Oligarchs and business interests strongly influence and corrupt national and local political institutions, undermining political accountability.
    • Moldova’s judicial branch is highly susceptible to political pressures that hamper its independence, and judicial appointment processes lack transparency.
    • Reporters have previously faced difficulty accessing publicly important information and threats of legal action from public figures and politicians.

    On Moldova

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    • Global Freedom Score

      62 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption is considered endemic in Mongolia, and anticorruption laws are vague and infrequently enforced.
    • The judiciary is susceptible to executive interference, as the National Security Council can recommend the dismissal of judges to the president.
    • Vulnerable segments of the population are at some risk of becoming trafficking victims. Mining workers are subject to exploitative conditions, as are contract workers from China.

    On Mongolia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      84 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption and cronyism remain widespread, and modest efforts by authorities to address the problem have not produced significant results.
    • Reporters who cover corruption and organized crime risk violence.
    • There are serious deficiencies in the transparency, openness, professionalism, accountability, and funding of the judicial system.

    On Montenegro

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    • Global Freedom Score

      67 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • LGBT+ people and women face widespread discrimination.
    • Minority ethnic groups accuse the government of favoring the majority Ovambo in allocating services.
    • The nomadic San people suffer from poverty and marginalization and lack land access.

    On Namibia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      77 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Nauru lacks a law on public access to information, and government officials are not required to disclose financial information.
    • Government officials have been accused of dismissing judges in retribution for unfavorable rulings.
    • Asylum seekers and refugees forcibly transferred to Nauru under its agreement with Australia have suffered widespread abuse.

    On Nauru

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    • Global Freedom Score

      77 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption is endemic in Nepali politics and government, and often goes unpunished.
    • Due process guarantees are poorly upheld, arbitrary arrests occur, and heavy case backlogs and a slow appeals process result in long pretrial detentions.
    • Gender-based violence is a problem, underage marriage of girls is widespread, and trafficking of women and children remains a problem.

    On Nepal

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    • Global Freedom Score

      57 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Rising anti-immigrant sentiment in recent years has been accompanied by more open expressions of anti-Islamic views.
    • There are long-standing concerns over exploitative working and housing conditions for migrant workers.

    On Netherlands

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    • Global Freedom Score

      97 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Māori and Pacific Islanders face discrimination in in schools, the workplace, and the health care system, while Indigenous peoples are overrepresented in the prison population.
    • Refugees often receive insufficient help accessing essential services. Asylum seekers have been detained alongside people convicted of criminal offenses, while their identity is being confirmed.

    On New Zealand

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    • Global Freedom Score

      99 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The struggle to meet security challenges posed by active militant groups has served as an alibi for the government to restrict civil liberties.
    • Recent rulings against opposition leaders and civil society activists have reduced public trust in the judiciary.
    • Women are underrepresented both in elected and cabinet positions.

    On Niger

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    • Global Freedom Score

      51 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption remains endemic in the key petroleum industry.
    • Military and law enforcement agencies often engage in extrajudicial killings, torture, and other abuses.
    • The vibrant media landscape is impeded by criminal defamation laws, as well as the frequent harassment and arrest of journalists.

    On Nigeria

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    • Global Freedom Score

      43 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      59 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption is a serious problem, and corrupt government officials, including members of parliament and the judiciary, often go unpunished.
    • Patronage networks are influential and can influence political outcomes.
    • Journalists are subject to harassment, political pressure, and physical attacks, which encourage fear and self-censorship.

    On North Macedonia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      67 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Members of the Roma community face unequal access to education and employment, while immigrants also face barriers to employment and health care.
    • Authorities have increasingly faced scrutiny over restrictive refugee and asylum policies.

    On Norway

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    • Global Freedom Score

      100 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The military has reasserted its role as political arbiter—more powerful than either the judiciary or the elected government—and sets the constraints within which civilian politics play out.
    • Islamist groups carry out attacks on religious minorities and other perceived opponents with impunity.
    • The government continues a crackdown on nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and journalists.
    • Authorities tightly control the online environment, routinely using internet shutdowns, platform blocking, and arrests and harsh convictions to suppress online speech.

    On Pakistan

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    • Global Freedom Score

      37 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      25 100 not free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Foreign nationals, who comprise about a third of the population, do not have political rights and have no paths to naturalization; citizenship must be inherited from at least one parent.
    • Authorities have sometimes resisted requests for public information, particularly at the subnational level.
    • Same-sex marriages are not recognized.

    On Palau

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    • Global Freedom Score

      92 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption and impunity are serious challenges, affecting the justice system and the highest levels of government.
    • Discrimination against racial and ethnic minorities is common, and Indigenous groups have struggled to uphold their legal rights with respect to land and development projects.
    • Human trafficking for sexual exploitation and forced labor remains a serious problem, despite some government efforts to combat it.

    On Panama

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    • Global Freedom Score

      83 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption is pervasive, and anticorruption institutions are subject to political interference.
    • The government generally does not release accurate information about public expenditures, procurement processes, or officials’ assets.
    • In some areas, local leaders, politicians, and candidate agents control balloting processes and have reportedly completed ballot papers in bulk—a form of “assisted voting" that effectively denies citizens the right to vote.

    On Papua New Guinea

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    • Global Freedom Score

      62 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Direct pressure against journalists, including threats by criminal groups and corrupt authorities, and occasional violent attacks encourage self-censorship.
    • The interests of minority ethnic groups are poorly represented in government. No Afro-Paraguayans or Indigenous people held legislative office in 2020.
    • The judiciary is nominally independent, but money launderers, drug traffickers, and corrupt politicians are often able to co-opt local judicial authorities.

    On Paraguay

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    • Global Freedom Score

      65 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Extended political clashes between the presidency and Congress since 2017 have heavily disrupted governance, and resulted in an irregular succession of four presidents within three years.
    • Laws meant to protect the land rights of Indigenous groups are weak and contain ambiguities.
    • In part due to major corruption scandals, the judiciary is perceived as one of the most corrupt institutions in the country.

    On Peru

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    • Global Freedom Score

      72 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The Duterte government’s security and counterterrorism policies, and particularly its drug war, have been characterized by grave and systemic human rights violations, impunity, and intolerance of dissent.
    • Independent media organizations and journalists remain targets of repressive state actions.
    • Online news and discussion have been increasingly manipulated by the government and its supporters, with numerous accounts spreading politicized disinformation and threats on social media.

    On Philippines

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    • Global Freedom Score

      55 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      65 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Since taking power in 2015, the current government has aggressively asserted control over the judiciary, passing legislation designed to curb the constitutional court’s powers and install progovernment judges on its benches.
    • Recent years have seen an increase in nationalist and homophobic rhetoric, including from officials.
    • Poland’s handling of the immigration crisis on the border with Belarus has been characterized by a lack of transparency and access for humanitarian groups and independent media.
    • The government avoids consulting outside experts or civil society on policy ideas and tends to introduce and pass legislation rapidly, with little opportunity for debate or amendment.

    On Poland

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    • Global Freedom Score

      81 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Defamation remains a criminal offense, and journalists have faced civil and criminal defamation cases.
    • Anticorruption mechanisms are considered deficient, and corruption persists in government.
    • Members of racial and ethnic minority groups face disparities in housing, education, and employment, and have been subject to excessive force by authorities.

    On Portugal

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    • Global Freedom Score

      95 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • High levels of corruption, bribery, and abuse of power persist, despite a comprehensive anticorruption action plan.
    • Discrimination against minorities and other vulnerable groups in areas including education and employment is a long-standing problem.
    • Romanian authorities struggle to adjudicate restitution claims for property seized during the communist era.

    On Romania

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    • Global Freedom Score

      83 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Only the 17,000 citizens with matai status (chiefs or family heads) are allowed to stand as candidates for elected office, and only about 11 percent of them are women.
    • The Samoa Law Society and other experts have criticized recent legislation that narrowed the jurisdiction of the Supreme Court.
    • Same-sex sexual activity remains a criminal offense for men.

    On Samoa

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    • Global Freedom Score

      83 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Poverty and corruption have weakened some institutions, and contribute to dysfunction in the justice system.
    • Recent administrations have overseen politically charged judicial appointments and dismissals.
    • Legal protections against exploitative or dangerous working conditions are poorly upheld, particularly in the informal agricultural sector.

    On São Tomé and Príncipe

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    • Global Freedom Score

      84 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Politically motivated prosecutions of opposition leaders and changes to electoral laws have reduced the competitiveness of the opposition in recent years.
    • Defamation laws constrain press freedom.
    • Corruption in government, weak rule of law, and inadequate protections for women and LGBT+ people remain challenges.

    On Senegal

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    • Global Freedom Score

      68 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The ruling party has used unfair electoral advantages, including domination of the media sector, to marginalize opposition groups.
    • Senior officials have faced credible accusations of corruption and links to organized crime.
    • Independent journalists and activists are subject to physical attacks, smear campaigns, punitive tax inspections, and other forms of pressure.

    On Serbia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      62 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      71 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Laws allowing public access to government information are poorly upheld, and government officials do not always comply with asset-declaration requirements.
    • Journalists practice a degree of self-censorship to protect advertising earnings, and in response to government pressure to maintain the country’s image as ideal for tourism.

    On Seychelles

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    • Global Freedom Score

      79 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Political corruption remains a problem.
    • The judicial branch is perceived as neither transparent nor independent.
    • Roma face entrenched discrimination, while migrants and refugees are subjected to growing political hostility.

    On Slovakia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      90 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Journalists face pressure, occasional harassment, and the threat of criminal defamation in the course of their work.
    • Asylum seekers and Roma face mistreatment and marginalization.

    On Slovenia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      90 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Government operations are generally opaque. There is no access to information law, and details of state deals with foreign companies are often withheld.
    • The legal age of marriage is 15, and about a fifth of women are married by age 18.
    • Discrimination against women, LGBT+ people, and ethnic Chinese people persists, as does discrimination based on certain regional origins. Laws criminalizing same-sex sexual relations remain on the books.

    On Solomon Islands

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    • Global Freedom Score

      79 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Comprehensive anticorruption laws and several agencies tasked with combating corruption exist, but enforcement has historically been inadequate.
    • Police torture and excessive force during arrest, interrogation, and detention are commonly reported.
    • Only a small percentage of the population benefits from large state industries, and the economy is controlled by a relatively small number of people belonging to the political and business elite.

    On South Africa

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    • Global Freedom Score

      79 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      73 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Despite government anticorruption efforts, bribery, influence peddling, and extortion persist in politics, business, and everyday life.
    • Online gender-based violence continues to undermine people’s ability to use the internet safely and freely.
    • Same-sex marriage is not recognized.

    On South Korea

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    • Global Freedom Score

      83 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      67 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Restrictive legislation adopted or enforced in recent years poses a threat to otherwise robust freedoms of expression and assembly.
    • Prosecutions related to Basque and Catalan separatism have featured due process flaws that drew criticism from international organizations.

    On Spain

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    • Global Freedom Score

      90 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Women are poorly represented in electoral politics. LGBT+ people are marginalized from political life.
    • Concerns persist about poor transparency for party and campaign financing.
    • Extended pretrial detention is a problem, with some detainees remaining in custody for more than two years before facing trial or having their cases dismissed.

    On St. Kitts and Nevis

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    • Global Freedom Score

      89 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Criminal libel laws remain on the books, with convictions potentially drawing heavy fines and jail sentences of up to five years.
    • Reports of police brutality persist, and there is a widespread perception that members of the Royal Saint Lucia Police Force (RSLPF) enjoy impunity for abusive behavior.
    • Women are underrepresented in political life. LGBT+ people are marginalized, and unprotected by the country’s antidiscrimination laws.

    On St. Lucia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      92 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Journalists remain subject to criminal and civil defamation laws that provide for harsh fines and jail terms.
    • Women and LGBT+ people are poorly represented in the legislature and in politics generally. LGBT+ people are marginalized in society, and laws criminalizing same-sex relations remain on the books.
    • Freedom of information legislation passed in 2003 has yet to be implemented, and there is no active legislation requiring government officials to disclose assets, income, or gifts.

    On St. Vincent and the Grenadines

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    • Global Freedom Score

      91 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption and clientelism are pervasive problems in society and in the government, undermining the rule of law.
    • Some journalists engage in self-censorship in response to pressure and intimidation by authorities.
    • Despite legal protections, LGBT+ people face societal discrimination, harassment, and abuse by police.

    On Suriname

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    • Global Freedom Score

      79 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Hate speech against Muslims and Jewish people is increasing, and they have been targeted in hate crimes including physical assaults and attacks on places of worship.
    • Immigrants and asylum seekers have faced increased restrictions and less access to government services.
    • Violent crime is emerging as a concern, with numerous shootings and shooting deaths reported recently.

    On Sweden

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    • Global Freedom Score

      100 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Immigrants face restrictions on their ability to gain citizenship, and experience employment discrimination.
    • Muslims face discrimination, including restrictions on building new sites of worship and bans on face coverings in some areas.

    On Switzerland

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    • Global Freedom Score

      96 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Discrimination against Indigenous groups in Taiwan has persisted.
    • Though Taiwan’s constitution guarantees secret communications, certain surveillance laws and procedures undermine privacy rights in practice.
    • A large migrant worker population in Taiwan is not afforded the same labor protections as Taiwanese workers.

    On Taiwan

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    • Global Freedom Score

      94 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      80 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Harsh immigration policies, which mainly affect Haitian-Bahamians and Haitian migrants, are often executed in the absence of due process.
    • Government corruption is a serious problem.

    On The Bahamas

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    • Global Freedom Score

      91 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Judicial independence and due process are undermined by serious capacity deficits and political influence. Due process rights are often restricted or denied, owing in part to a dearth of resources and personnel.
    • The World Bank estimates that Timor-Leste loses from 1.5 to 2 percent of gross domestic product annually to corruption. Anticorruption bodies lack enough funding to operate effectively.
    • Media outlets are vulnerable to political pressure due to their reliance on government financial support.

    On Timor-Leste

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    • Global Freedom Score

      72 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Women cannot inherit noble titles, meaning the seats reserved for nobility in the parliament are effectively reserved for men.
    • Anticorruption mechanisms are generally weak and lacking in resources. There is no law guaranteeing public access to government information.
    • Politicians have a history of exerting pressure on the media in response to critical coverage. Vague regulations issued in 2020 allow fines for publishing or broadcasting “sensitive information.”

    On Tonga

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    • Global Freedom Score

      79 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption remains a pervasive problem, especially within the police force and among high-ranking government officials and immigration officers.
    • The tens of thousands of Venezuelan asylum seekers and refugees who have entered the country in recent years are not adequately protected by immigration laws. Trinidad specifically lacks a system to process asylum claims.
    • Discrimination against LGBT+ people is widespread.

    On Trinidad and Tobago

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    • Global Freedom Score

      82 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • There is no freedom of information law to guarantee and regulate public access to official records.
    • There is a lack of antidiscrimination laws to protect women and LGBT+ people, and there are concerns about child labor in some industries.

    On Tuvalu

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    • Global Freedom Score

      93 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Corruption persists as a serious problem, and the remaining political will to fight it is eroding. Powerful business figures exert influence over politics through financial support for political parties, and lobby for the appointment of loyalists to key institutional positions.
    • Threats and violence by nonstate actors regularly disrupt or prevent meetings by groups advocating for LGBT+ and women’s rights.
    • Recent reform initiatives aimed at addressing the country’s corrupt and politicized courts have stalled or fallen short of expectations.

    On Ukraine

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    • Global Freedom Score

      61 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      62 100 partly free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The country’s banking and financial sectors, property market, and offshore services in overseas territories have drawn scrutiny for enabling money laundering and facilitating corruption globally.
    • Bulk surveillance powers infringe on the privacy of residents and travelers alike.
    • Black, Asian, and ethnic minority residents face continued discrimination, including by law enforcement authorities.

    On United Kingdom

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    • Global Freedom Score

      93 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      78 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The electoral system remains at risk of partisan manipulation, including through the recent adoption of state-level laws and the practice of gerrymandering.
    • People of color, especially Black and Native Americans, face disparities in access to housing and lending, education and employment, fair wages, and health care, as well as discrimination in the criminal justice system.
    • Wealthy campaign donors and lobbyists are able to buy access and influence in the political system that are unavailable to ordinary voters.

    On United States

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    • Global Freedom Score

      83 100 free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      75 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The courts in Uruguay remain backlogged, and prisons are violent and operate at or near capacity.
    • The Afro-Uruguayan minority continues to face economic and social inequalities.
    • Women enjoy equal rights under the law but face discriminatory attitudes and practices, including a persistent wage gap.

    On Uruguay

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    • Global Freedom Score

      97 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • Women are severely underrepresented in elected offices. No women were elected to Parliament in 2020, and only 18 contested seats.
    • Elected officials have been accused of threatening journalists for critical reporting.
    • The police paramilitary unit, the Vanuatu Mobile Force (VMF), has a reputation for heavy-handed treatment of citizens. Civilian authorities have not been effective in punishing and preventing cases of police brutality.

    On Vanuatu

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    • Global Freedom Score

      82 100 free
  • header1 Issues of concern

    • The country experienced serious democratic backsliding under former president Edgar Lungu, including repression of the opposition, restrictions on the internet, and attacks on media freedom. The new administration of Hakainde Hichilema, who took office in August 2021, has an opportunity to pursue justice and accountability.
    • Allegations of police brutality, including the use of torture to extract confessions, have been widespread, and security forces have operated with impunity.
    • Corruption in government is common, and related prosecutions and court decisions are often thought to reflect political motivations.

    On Zambia

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    • Global Freedom Score

      51 100 partly free
    • Internet Freedom Score

      59 100 partly free